Curriculum Vitae

Drug Discovery Group

 

Director

Professor David C.K. Chu

 

 


PROFESSIONAL ADDRESS:

                                                College of Pharmacy

                                                The University of Georgia

                                                Athens, GA 30602-2352

                                                Tel: 706-542- 5379

                                                Fax: 706-542-5381

                                                E-mail: dchu@rx.uga.edu

                                                Website: 128.192.159.26/main/home/chugroup

EDUCATION:

 

Seoul National University

1964

B.S. Pharmacy

Idaho State University

1970

M.S. Medicinal Chemistry

State University of New York/Buffalo

1974

Ph.D. Medicinal Chemistry

 

PROFESSIONAL AND ACADEMIC POSITIONS:

            2008-present                Distinguished Research Professor, Emeritus

            1998-2007                   Distinguished Research Professor (University of Georgia Chaired Professorship)

            1998-1999                   Millikan-Reeve Professor of Pharmacy (University of Georgia College of Pharmacy Chaired Professorship)-resigned to accept the above.

            1990-1997                   Professor (University of Georgia)

            1986-present                Director, Drug Discovery Group (University of Georgia)

            1987-1989                   Associate Professor (University of Georgia)-tenured

            1982-1986                   Assistant Professor (University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia)

            1980-1982                   Assistant Professor (Idaho State University)

            1976-1980                   Research Associate (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York)

            1974-1975                   Postdoctoral Fellow (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York-Drs. Fox and Watanabe)

            1970-1974                   Research Assistant (SUNY/Buffalo, Buffalo, New York)

            1968-1970                   Graduate Assistant (Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho)

            1965-1968                   Korean Navy Officer (retired as Lt. Jr. Gr.)

            1964-1965                   Research Assistant (Korean NIH, Seoul Korea)

PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS:

            American Chemical Society (Medicinal, Organic, and Carbohydrate Division Member)

            American Association for Cancer Research

            American Association for the Advancement of Science

            Korean American Scientists and Engineers Association in U.S.

            The International Society for Antiviral Research

            International Society for Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

           

HONORS, AWARDS AND PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION:

           

           

            NIH Advisory Committee Member (AIDS Emphasis panel-AARR3), 1998-2002

            NIH Advisory Committee Member (Bioorganic & Natural Product Chemistry Study Section),1995-1997

            NIH Advisory Committee ad hoc member (BNP, OIG, NCDDG, SBIR, AIDS)1987-present

            NIH Principal Investigator, 1986-Present

            American Chemical Society (Northeast Georgia Section) chemist of the year, 1998

            Member, Board of the University of Georgia Research Foundation (1989-1989)

            University of Georgia Creative Research Medal, 1988

            Deans Special Award for Research Achievement, 1989

            Co-Founder & Chair, Scientific Advisory Board (Pharmasset), 1998-2003

            Rho Chi Pharmacy Honor Society

            Sigma Xi Honor Society

            Phi Beta Delta Honor Society for International Scholars, 1989-present

            Editorial Advisory Board (Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic acids), 1994-Present   

            President, The Society of Biomedical Research, 1995-1997

            Millikan-Reeve Professor of Pharmacy (Pharmacy chaired professor), 1998-1999 (resigned to accept Distinguished Research Professorship)

            University of Georgia Distinguished Research Professor (UGA chaired professor), 1998-2007

            Marquis Whos Who in the World

            Marquis Who’s Who in America

            NIH Merit Award, 2001-2011

            Inventor of the Year Award (University of Georgia), 2002

            Elected Fellow of American Association of Advancement of Science, 2002

            National Board member of Florida A & M University College of Pharmacy RCMI (2002-present)

            Idaho State University College of Pharmacy Deans Advisory Council member (2007-present)

            John A. Montgomery award- 2014

MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS IN DRUG DISCOVERY

            Pseudoisocytidine for cancer (discovered 1975-Phase 1-discontinued)

            AZDU (CS-87) for AIDS (discovered in 1987-Phase I/II-1999-discontinued)

            AZMC (CS-92) for AIDS (discovered in 1988-Phase 1-discontinued)

            Amdoxovir (DAPD) for AIDS (discovered in 1992- currently Phase II clinical trials)

            Troxatyl (L-OddC) for cancer (discovered in 1993-currently Phase II clinical trials)

            Clevudine (L-FMAU) for hepatitis B virus (discovered in 1993-currently Phase III clinical trials, NDA approved in South Korea and Philliphine)

            FMCA for drug resistant HBV (discovered 2009- preclinical)

            L-BHDA for shingles (discovered 2005- preclinicals)   

AREA OF RESEARCH INTERESTS:

            Nucleoside and carbohydrate chemistry

            Antiviral chemotherapy (HIV, hepatitis B & C virus, West Nile virus, VZV and Epstein Barr virus)

            Cancer chemotherapy

            Structure-based drug design & molecular modeling

            Antiviral drug discovery for bioterrorism (Smallpox, Monkeypox, Ebola virus , etc.)

CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS:

            Drug Design and synthesis of antiviral agents for AIDS

            Drug targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides

            Drug design and synthesis of antiviral agents against small pox, Westnile, hepatitis B & C viruses

            Drug design and synthesis of anti-AIDS opportunistic infections

            Asymmetric synthesis of nucleosides from carbohydrate chiral templates           

            Molecular mechanism and drug resistance of HIV & HBV RT

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES:

A.        Publications:

1.         Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. XCII. A facile synthesis of 5-(-D-ribofuranyosyl)isocytosine (y -Isocytidine). J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1975, 12, 817-818.

 

2.         Burchenal, J.H.; Ciovacco, K.; Kalaher, K.; OToole, T.; Kiefner, R.; Dowling, M.D.; Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Wempen, I.; Fox, J.J. Antileukemic effects of pseudoisocytidine, a new synthetic pyrimidine C-nucleoside. Cancer Res. 1976, 36, 1520-1523.

 

3.         de las Heras, F.G.; Chu, C.K.; Tam, S.Y-K.; Klein, R.S.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. XCVII. Synthesis of an 8-(D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine, a new type of C-nucleoside. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1976, 13, 175-177.

 

4.         Reichman, U.; Hollenberg, D.H.; Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. 98. Direct introduction of an acetamide group into the sugar moiety of nucleoside epoxies. J. Org. Chem. 1976, 41, 2042-2043.

 

5.         Chu, C.K.; Wempen, I.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. 100. General synthesis of pyrimidine C-5 nucleosides related to pseudourine. Synthesis of 5-(-D-ribofuranosyl)isocytosine (pseudoisocytidine), 5-(-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-thiouracil (2-thiopseudouridine) and 5-(-D-ribofuranosyl)uracil (pseudouridine). J. Org. Chem. 1976, 41, 2793-2797.

 

6.         Reichman, U.; Chu, C.K.; Hollenberg, D.H.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides, XCIX. 2-Acetoxybenzoyl chloride, a reagent for the direct synthesis of 2,2-anhydro-pyrimidine nucleosides. Synthesis 1976, 8, 533-534.

 

7.         Reichman, U.; Chu, C.K.; Wempen, I.; Watanabe, K,.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. CIII. Anhydropyrimidine-C-nucleosides. Synthesis of 4,2’-anhydro-5-(-D-arabinofuranoxyl)- and 5-(-D-arabinofuranosyl)pyrimidine C-nucleosides. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1976, 13, 933-935.

 

8.         Watanabe, K.A.; Chiu, T.M.K.; Reichman, U.; Chu, C.K.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. XCV. Total synthesis of pentopyranamine D, the nucleoside moiety of blasticidin H. Tetrahedron 1976, 32, 1493-1495.

 

9.         Chu, C.K.; Bardos, T.J. Synthesis and inhibition analysis of 2(4)amino-4(2)amino-2,4-dideoxyriboflavin, a dual antagonist of roboflavin and folinic acid. J. Med. Chem.,1977, 20, 312-314.

 

10.       Levine, E.M.; Chu, C.K.; Bardos, T.J. Pyrimido[5,4-b]-quinolines. II. Reactions at the heterocyclic ring carbons and nitrogens. J. Heterocyclic Chem., 1977, 14, 611-614.

 

11.       Chu, C.K.; Bardos, T.J. Pyrimido[5,4-b]quinolines. III. Synthesis of 10-alkylsubstituted 10-deaza-alloxazines. J. Heterocyclic Chem., 1977, 14, 1053-1057.

 

12.       Chu, C.K.; Reichman, U.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. 104. Synthesis of 4-amino-5(D-ribofuranosyl)pyrimidine C-nucleosides from 2-(2,3-O-trityl-D-ribofuranosyl)acetonitrile. J. Org. Chem. 1977, 42, 711-714.

 

13.       Reichman, U.; Hirota, K.; Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. CVI. Synthesis of 1-N-methyl-5( -D-ribofuranosyl)uracil (1-N-methyl-y -uridine) and its identity with a metabolite elaborated by Streptomyces platensis var. clarensis. J. Antibiotics. 1977, 30, 129-131.

 

14.       Chu, C.K.; Reichman, U.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. CIX. 2’-Deoxy-y-isocyridine, 2’-deoxy-y -uridine and 2’-deoxy-1-methyl-y’ uridine. Isoteres of deoxycytidine, deoxyuridine and thymidine. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1977, 14, 1119-1121.

 

15.       Chu, C.K.; Reichman, U.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides. 107. Synthesis of 5-(-D-arabinofuranosyl)isocytosine and related C-nucleosides. J. Med. Chem. 1978, 21, 96-100.

 

16.       Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.; Klein, R.S.; Chu, C.K.; Tam, S. Y-K.; Reichman, U. : Hirota, K.; Hwang, J-S.; de las Heras, F.G.; Wempen, I. New C-nucleoside isosteres of some nucleoside antibiotics, in Chemistry and Biochemistry of Nucleosides and Nucleotides (R. E. Harmon, R.K. Robins, and L.B. Townsend, eds.) Academic Press, New York, 1978, 415-439.

 

17.       Watanabe, K.A.; Reichman, U.; Chu, C.K.; Fox, J.J. 2,5’-Anhydrouridine and 2,5’-anhydro-5-fluorouridine. One-step conversion of uridine and 5-fluorouridine into their corresponding 2,5’-anhydronucleosides. Nucl. Acid Chem. 1978, 1, 343-346.

 

18.       Watanabe, K.A.; Reichman, U.; Chu, C.K.; Fox, J.J. 2,5’-Anhydrodeoxyribosyl pyrimidine nucleosides. Two-step synthesis of 2,5’-anhydronucleosides from thymidine, deoxyuridine and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine. Nucl. Acid Chem. 1978, 1, 273.

 

19.       Chou, T-C.; Burchenal, J.H.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.; Chu, C.K.; Phillips, F.S. Metabolism and effects of 5-(-D-ribofuranosyl)isocytosine in P815. Cancer Res. 1979, 39, 720-728.

 

20.       Chung, W.K.; Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Pyrimidines. 16. Novel s-triazine to pyrimidine ring transformation reaction. J. Org. Chem. 1979, 44, 3982-3983.

 

21.       Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.; Klein, R.S.; Chu, C.K.; Tam, S.Y-K.; Reichman, U.; Hirota, K.; Wempen, I.; Lopez, C.; Burchenal, J.H. Some C-and N-nucleosides: Chemistry and Chemotherapy. Les Colloques de 1INSERM 81 1979, 241-270.

 

22.       Watanabe, K.A.; Reichman, U.; Chu, C.K.; Hollenberg, D.H.; Fox, J.J. Nucleoside 118. 1-(-D-Xylofuranosyl)-5-fluorocytosines with leaving group on the 3-position. Double-barreled masked precursors of Anticancer nucleosides. J. Med. Chem. 1980, 23, 1088-1094.

 

23.       Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleoside 117. Synthesis of 4-Oxo-8-(-D-ribofuranosyl)-3H-pyrozolo(1,5-a)-1,3,5-triazine (OPTR) via 3-Amino-2N-carbamoyl-4-(-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazole (APCR) Derivatives. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1980, 17, 1435-1439.

 

24.       Matsuda, A.; Chu, C.K.; Reichman, U.; Pankiewicz, K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Fox, J.J. Nucleosides 120. Synthesis of 2-Deoxy-y-Isocytidine and 2’-Deoxy-1-methyl-y-Uridine from y-Uridine. J. Org. Chem. 1981, 46, 3603-3609.

 

25.       Stoeckler, J.D.; Bell, C.A.; Park, R.E., Jr.; Chu, C.K.; Fox, J.J.; Ikehara, M. Substrate activities of adenosine and inosine analogs substituted on C(2’) with azide or fluorine. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1982, 31, 1723-1728.

 

26.       Watanabe, K.A.; Su, T-L.; Klein, R.S.; Chu, C.K.; Matsuda, A.; Chun, M.W.; Lopez, C.; Fox, J.J. Synthesis of Antiviral nucleosides: 5-Substituted 1-(2’-Deoxy-2’-halogeno-‘-arabinofuranosyl)cytosines and uracils. Some structure activity relationships. J. Med. Chem. 1983, U28, 152-156.

 

27.       Chu, C.K. Acetylation of nucleosides by acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin). Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1983, 2, 453-458.

 

28.       Chu, C.K. Acyclopyrimidine C-nucleosides. Synthesis of acyclopseudoisocytidine and its derivatives. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1984, 21, 9-11.

 

29.       Chu, C.K. Synthesis of 3-Amino-2-carbamimidoyl-pyrazole C-nucleosides and its cyclization to 4-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-trizine C-nucleosides. Heterocycles 1984, 22, 345-351.

 

30.       Chu, C.K.; El-Kabbani, F.M.; Thompson, B.B. Determination of the anomeric configuration of C-nucleosides by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1984, 3, 1-31.

 

31.       Chu, C.K. A facile synthesis of 8-(-D-ribofuranosyl)-4-thio-3H-pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine and its a-Anomer. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1984, 21, 389-392.

 

32.       Chu, C.K.; Wander, J.D.; Tackett, R.L.; Iturrian, W.B.; Schmitz; Garner, G.E.; Chae, K.A. Novel serotonin antagonist 2,2’-bis[3-(2-N,N Dimethylaminoethyl)indolyl)Sulfide (BDIS). J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1984, 21, 1901-1903.

 

33.       Matsuda, A.; Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A. 1-Methyl-5-(2-deoxy-‘-D-erythropentofuranosyl)uracil (2-deoxy-1-methyl-pseudouridine), a C-nucleoside isostere of thymidine. Nucleic Acid Chem. 1986, 3, 48-52.

 

34.       Chu, C.K.; Cutler, S.J.; Mesbah, M.; Cutler, H.G. Ring Transformation Reactions of C-Nucleosides: A Facile Synthesis of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]Pyrimidine and Pyrazolo[1,5-a]triazine C-nucleosides. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1986, 23, 349-352.

 

35.       Doss, S.L.; Chu, C.K.; Cutler, H.G.; Cole, P.B.; Arrendale, R.; Mesbah, M.K.; Springer, J.T. Isolation of compactin from Penicillium cyclopium J. Natural Products 1986, 49, 357-358.

 

36.       Mesbah, M.; Chu, C.K.; Doss, S.L. The Flavonoids of Aureolaria Virginica L. J. Natural Products 1986, 49, 169.

 

37.       Chu, C.K.; Cutler, S.J. Chemistry and antiviral activities of acyclonucleosides. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1986, 23, 289-319.

 

38.       Chu, C.K.; Suh, J.J.; Cutler, H.G. Synthesis of 1-(-D-Ribofuranosyl)-indol-3-acetic Acid. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1986, U23U, 1777-1779.

 

39.       Chu, C.K.; Suh, J.J. Acyclonucleosides: Synthesis of 5-(2,3-Dihydroxy-1-Propoxymethyl)pyrimidines. J. Heterocyclic Chem. 1986, 23, 1621-1624.

 

40.       Lin, T.S.; Guo, J.Y.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Xing, J.N.; Prusoff, W.H. Synthesis and antiviral Activity of Various 3’-Azido Analogues of Pyrimidine Deoxyribonucleosides Against Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1, HTLV-III/LAV). J. Med. Chem. 1988, 31, 336-340.

 

41.       Ullas, G.V.; Chu, C.K.; Ahn, M.K.; Kosugi, Y. Synthesis of C-nucleoside analogue of (S)-DHPA and Related Compounds. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 2413-2418.

 

42.       Van Roey, P.; Salerno, J.M.; Duax, W.L.; Chu, C.K.; Ahn, M.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Solid state conformation of anti-HIV-type-1 agents: Crystal structures of three 3’-Azido-3’-deoxythymidine analogues. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988, 110, 2277-2282.

 

43.       Doboszewski, B.; Chu, C.K.; Van Halbeek, H. Synthesis of C-nucleoside analogues of 2,-3-dideoxycytidine, 3’-azido-3’-deoxyuridine (CS-87) and 2’,3’-dideoxy-2’,3’-didehydrocytidine. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 2777-2782.

 

44.       Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Arnold, B.; Doboszewski, B.; Bhadti, V.S. Comparative activity of 2-3-dideoxy- and 2’,3’-dideoxy-2’,3’-dehydro-pyrimidine and purine nucleosides against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1988, 37, 3543-3548.

 

45.       Chu, C.K.; Beach, J.W.; Ullas, G.V.; Kosugi, Y. An Efficient synthesis of 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine (AZddU, CS-87) from D-mannitol. Tetrahedron Lett. 1988, 29, 5349-5351.

 

46.       Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Ahn, M.K.; Ullas, G.V.; Gu, J.P. Structure-activity relationships of pyrimidine nucleosides antiviral agents for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 612-617.

 

47.       Chu, C.K.; Matulic-Adamic, J.; Huang, J.T.; Chou, T.C.; Burchenal, J.H.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A. Synthesis of some 9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-purines, Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Japan), 1989, 32, 336-339.

 

48.       Chu, C.K.; Bhadti, V.S.; Doboszewski, B.; Gu, Z.P.; Kosugi, Y.; Pullaiah, K.C.; Van Roey, P. General synthetic methods of 2’,3’-dideoxy- and 2’,3’-didhydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 1989, 54, 2217-2225.

 

49.       Chu, C.K.; Doboszewski, B.; Schmidt, W.; Van Roey, P. Synthesis of pyrimidine 3’-allyl-2’,3’-dideoxyribonucleosides by free radical coupling. J. Org. Chem. 1989, 54, 2767-2769.

 

50.       Van Roey, P.; Salerno, J.M.; Chu, C.K. Schinazi, R.F. Conformation between preferred sugar ring conformation and anti-HIV activity of nucleoside analogues. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (USA), 1989, 86, 3929-3933.

 

51.       Chu, C.K.; Raghavachari, R.; Beach, J.W.; Kosugi, Y.; Ullas, G.V. A General synthetic method for 2’,3’-dideoxynucleosides: Total synthetic approach. Nucleosides and Nucleotides 1989, 8, 903-906.

 

52.       Patel, B.A.; Chu, C.K.; Boudinot, F.D. Pharmacokinetics and saturable tubular secretion of zidovudine in rats J. Pharmaceutical Sciences 1989, 78, 530-531.

 

53.       Eriksson, B.B.H.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Phosphorylation of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine (CS-87, AzddU) and preferential inhibition of human and similar immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases by its 5’-triphosphate derivative. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1989, 33, 1729-1734.

 

54.       Doshi, K. J.; Gallo, J.M.; Boudine, F.D.; Chu, C.K. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of 3’-azido-3’-deoxy-thymidine (AZT) and 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine (AZddU, CS-87) in mice. Drug Metabolism & Disposition1989, 17, 590-594.

 

55.       Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Gallo, J.N.; McClure, H.; Anderson, D.; Doshi, K.; Chu, C.K. 3’-Azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine (AZddu):’ Comparative pharmacokinetics with 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine (AZT) in monkeys. AIDS Res. Human Retro. 1990, 6, 219-228.

 

56.       Chu, C.K.; Babu, J.R.; Beach, J.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Huang, H.; Jeong, L.S.; Lee, S.J. A highly stereoselective Glycosylation of 2-(Phenylselenenyl)-2,3-dideoxyribose Derivative with Thymine: Synthesis of 3’-deoxy-2’,3’-didehydrothymidine and 3’-Deoxythymidine J. Org. Chem. 1990, 55, 1418-1420.

 

57.       Chu, C.K.; Ullas, G.V.; Jeong, L.S.; Ahn, S.K.; Doboszewski, B.; Lin, Z.X.; Beach, J.W.; Schinazi, R.F. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 6-substituted-2’,3’-dideoxypurine nucleosides as anti-HIV agents J. Med. Chem. 1990, 33, 1553-1561.

 

58.       Patel, B.A.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Gallo, J.M.; Chu, C.K. Comparative pharmacokinetics and interspecies scale-up of 3’-azido-3’deoxythymidine (AZT) in several mammarian species. J. Pharmacobio Dyn. 1990, 13, 206-211.

 

59.       Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Jarayaman, B.R.; Nasr, M. Anthraquinones as a new class of antiviral agents against human immunodefiency virus. Antiviral Res. 1990, 13, 265-272.

 

60.       Hirota, K.; Hosono, H.; Kitade, Y.; Maki, Y.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Nakane, H.; Uno, K. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of 3’-deoxy-3’-(triazolo-1-yl)thymidines and 2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-(triazol-1-yl)uridine, and inhibition of reverse transcriptase by their 5’-triphosphates. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990, 38, 2597-2601.

 

61.       Chu, C.K.; Bhadti, V.S.; Doshi, K.; Etse, J.T.; Boudinot, F.D.; Gallo, J.; Schinazi, R.F. Brain targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides: Synthesis and in vivo studies of dihydronicotinyl derivatives of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine (AzddU or CS-87) and 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine (AZT or Zidovudine) J. Med. Chem. 1990, 33, 2188-2192.

 

62.       Huang, H.Q.; Chu, C.K. A Practical synthesis of 2’-deoxyuridine, Synth. Commun. 1990, 20, 1039-1046.

 

63.       Van Roey, P.; Taylor, E.W.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Correlation of molecular conformation and activity of reverse transcriptase inhibitors, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 1990, 616, 29-40.

 

64.       Williams, G.J.; Colby, C.B.; Schinazi, R.F.; Sommadossi, J.-P.; Chu, C.K.; Johns, D.G.; Mitsuya, H. The cellular metabolism of AzddU: Correlation with in vitro anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities and infectious diseases, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 1990, 616, 620-623. 

 

65.       Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Eriksson, B.F.; Sommadossi, J.P.; Gallo, J.M.; Boudinot, F.D.; Anderson, D.; McClure, H.M. Antiviral, cytotoxic, biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxy-5-methyl-cytidine Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 1990, 616, 385-397.

 

66.       Taylor, E.W.; Van Roey, P.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. A Comprehensive stereochemical rationale for the activity of nucleoside analogue V.S. the AIDS Virus, Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 1990, 1, 163-173.

 

67.       Zhu, Z.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Williams, G.J.; Colby, C.B.; Sommadossi, J.-P. Cellular Metabolism of 3’-azido-2’,3-dideoxyuridine with formation of 5’-O-diphopho-hexose derivatives by previously unrecognized metabolism pathways for 2’-deoxyuridine analogs Molecular Pharmacol. 1990, 38, 929-938.

 

68.       Chu, C.K.; Bhadti, V.S.; Doshi, K.; Etse, J.T.; Gallo, J.M.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F. Brain targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides: Synthesis and in vivo studies of dihydronicotinyl derivative of AzddU and AZT Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 1990, 616, 495-498.

 

69.       Boudinot, F.D.; Ibrahim, S.S.; Qin, Y.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Pharmacokinetics of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxy-5-methylcytidine in rats Antimicrobial Chem. Chemother. 1990, 1, 367-371.

 

70.       Chu, C.K.; Suh, J.J. Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and pyrazolo [1,5-a]triazines: Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds using 1,3-dimethyl-uracil and 1,3-dimethyl-5-azauracil as synthons. Nucleic Acid Chem. 1991, 4, 19-24.

 

71.       Chu, C.K.; Suh, J.J. 5-[(2,3-Dihydroxy-1-Propoxy)-methyl]pyrimidines: Synthesis of pyrimidine acyclo-C-nucleosides. Nucleic Acid Chem. 1991, 4, 99.

 

72.       Chu, C.K.; Beach, J.W.; Babu, J.R.; Jeong, L.S.; Kim, H.O.; Ahn, S.K.; Islam, Q.; Lee, S.J.; Chen, Y.-Q. Stereoselective synthesis of 2’,3’-di-deoxy- and 2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3[-dideoxy-nucleosides Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1991, 10, 423-426.

 

73.       Boudinot, F.D.; Srivastan, V.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine in rats Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 1991, 2, 17-22.

 

74.       Chu, C.K.; Ahn, S.K.; Kim, H.O.; Alves, A.J.; Beach, J.W.; Jeong, L.S.; Islam, Q.; Van Roey, P.; Schinazi, R.F. Asymmetric synthesis of enantiomerically pure (-)-(1R,4R)-Dioxolane-thymine and its anti-HIV activity Tetrahedron Lett. 1991, 32, 3791-3794.

 

75.       Gallo, J.M.; Etse, J.T.; Doshi, K.J.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K. Hybrid pharmacokinetics models to describe anti-HIV nucleoside brain disposition following parent and prodrug administration in mice. Pharm. Research 1991, 8, 247-253.

 

76.       Chu, C.K.; Beach, J.W.; Jeong, L.S.; Choi, B.G.; Comer, F.I.; Alves, J.J.; Schinazi, R.F.; Van Roey, P. Enantiomeric synthesis of (+)-BCH-189, (+)-1-‘-D-5-(1,3-oxothiolanyl)cytosine from D-mannose and its anti-HIV activity, J. Org. Chem. 1991, 56, 6503-6505.

 

77.       Chen, Y.Q.; Bauman, J.G.; Chu, C.K. Practical total synthesis of AZT and AZDU: An efficient deoxygenation procedure of 2’-xanthate Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1992, 11, 693-705.

 

78.       Jeong, L.S.; Alves, A.J.; Carrigan, S.W.; Kim, H.O.; Beach, J.W.; Chu, C.K. An efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure (+)-(2S,5R)-1-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine[(+)-BCH-189] from D-galactose. Tetrahedron Lett. 1992,33, 595-598.

 

79.       Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Peck, A.; McMillan, A.; Mathis, R.; Cannon, D.; Jeong, L.S.; Beach, J.W.; Choi, W.-B.; Yeola, S.; Liotta, D.C. Activities of the four optical isomers of 2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-thiacytidine (BCH-189) against HIV-1 in human lymphocytes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1992, 36, 672-676.

 

80.       Beach, J.W.; Babu, J.R.; Kim, H.O.; Jeong, L.-S.; Ahn, S.K.; Islam, Q.; Nampalli, S.; Chu, C.K. A highly stereoselective synthesis of anti-HIV 2’,3’-dideoxy-and 2’3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57, 3888-3894.

 

81.       Chang, C.-N.; Doong, S.-L.; Zhou, J.H.; Chu, C.K.; Tsai, C.-H.; Cheng, Y.-C. Deoxy-cytidine deaminase resistant stereoisomer, (2’R,5’S)-(-)-isomer is the active form of (‘)-2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-thiacytidine in the inhibition of Hepatitis B virus replication.J. Biol. Chem. 1992, 267, 13938-13942.

 

82.       Van Roey, P.; Chu, C.K. The crystal and molecular structure of the complex of 2’,3’-dide-hydro-2’,3’-dideoxyguanosine with pyridine. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1992, 11, 1229-1239.

 

83.       Cretton, E.M.; Xie, M.Y.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Sommadossi, J.-P. Catabolic disposition of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine in hepatocytes with evidence of azido reduction being general catabolic pathway of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxynucleosides. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1992, 44, 973-980.

 

84.       Hirota, K.; Hosono, H.; Kitade, Y.; Maki, Y.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Muraoka, O. Synthesis of thymidine derivatives 3’-modified with a polar three-atoms group as potential anti-HIV-1 agents. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1992, 11, 1731-1738.

 

85.       Sommadossi, J.-P.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Xie, M.-T. Comparison of cytotoxicity of the (-) and (+)-enantiomer of 2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-thiacytidine in normal human bone marrow progenitor cells. Biochem. Pharacol. 1992, 44, 1921-1925.

 

86.       Jeong, L.S.; Schinazi, R.F.; Beach, J.W.; Kim, H.O.; Nampalli, S.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Alves, A.J.; McMillan, A.; Chu, C.K.; Mathis, R. Asymmetric synthesis and biological evaluation of -L-(2R,5S)-and a-L-(2R,5R)-1,3-oxathiolane-pyrimidine and purine nucleosides as potential Anti-HIV agents. J. Med. Chem. 1993, 36, 181-195.

 

87.       Kim, H.O.; Schinazi, R.F.; Nampalli, S.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Cannon, D.L.; Alves, A.; Jeong, L.-S.; Beach, J.W.; Chu, C.K. 1,3,-Dioxolanylpurine nucleosides (2R,4R) and (2R, 4S) with selective anti-HIV-1 activity in human Lymphocytes. J. Med. Chem. 1993, 36, 30-37.

 

88.       Schinazi, R.F.; Lloyd, R.M.; Nguyen, M.-H.; Cannon, D.; McMillan, A.; Ilksoy, N.; Chu, C.K.; Liotta, D.C.; Bazmi, H.Z.; Mellors, J.W. Characterization of human immunodeficiency viruses resistant to oxathiolane-cytosine nucleosides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1993, 37, 875-881.

 

89.       Kim, H.O.; Schinazi, R.F.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Jeong, L.S.; Beach, J.W.; Nampalli, S.; Cannon, D.L.; Chu, C.K. L-‘-(2S,4S) and L-a-(2S,4R)-Dioxolanyl nucleosides as potential anti-HIV agents: Asymmetric synthesis and structure-activity relationships. J. Med. Chem. 1993, 36, 519-528.

 

90.       Van Roey, P.; Taylor, E.W.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Conformational analysis of 2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxypyrimidine nucleosides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 5365-5371.

 

91.       Beach, J.W.; Jeong, L.S.; Kim, H.O.; Nampalli, S.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Chu, C.K. Stereocontrolled routes for the synthesis of anti-HIV and anti-HBV nucleosides in Nucleosides and Nucleotides as Antitumor and Antiviral Agents. Chu & Baker Eds. Plenum, New York, 1993, 219-243.

 

92.       Van Roey, P.; Chu, C.K.Crystal structures and molecular conformations of anti-HIV nucleosides, in Nucleosides and Nucleotides as Antitumor and Antiviral Agents. Chu & Baker Eds., Plenum, New York, 1993, 285-302.

 

93.       Jeong, L.S.; Schinazi, R.F.; Beach, J.W.; Kim, H.O.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Nampalli, S.; Chu, W.O.; Chung, W.-K; Chu, C.K Structure-activity relationships of -D-(2S,5R)-and a-D-(2S,5S)-1,3-oxathiolanyl nucleosides as potential anti-HIV agents. J. Med. Chem. 1993, 36, 2627-2638.

 

94.       Doshi, K.J.; Islam, Q.; Gallo, J.M.; Boudinot, F.D.; Hsieh, L.; Quin, Y.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Brain targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides: Ether prodrugs of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine (AZDU) and 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine. Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 1993, 4, 263-269.

 

95.       Copland, J.A.; Hendry, L.B.; Chu, C.K.; Wood, J.C.; Wrenn, R.W.; Pantazis, C.G.; Mahesh, V.B. Inhibition of estrogen stimulated mitgogenesis by 3-phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidine-dione and its para-hydroxy analog. J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. 1993, 46, 451-462.

 

96.       Jeong, L.S.; Beach, J.W.; Chu, C.K. Stereoselective synthesis of 3’-azido-2,3-dideoxy-D-ribose derivative and its utilization for the synthesis of anti-HIV nucleosides. J.Heterocycl. Chem. 1993, 30, 1445-1452.

 

97.       Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Doshi, K.J.; McClure, H.M.; Chu, C.K. Pharmacokinetics of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxy-5-methyl-cytidine in Rhesus monkeys. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 1993, 21, 855-860.

 

98.       Shanmuganathan, K.; Koudriakova, T.; Nampalli, S.; Gallo, J.M.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Enhanced brain delivery of an anti-HIV nucleoside 2’-F-ara-ddl by xanthine oxidase medeated biotransformation. J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 821-827.

 

99.       Qian, M.X.; Wang, S.G.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Chu, C.K.; Gallo, J.M. Pharmacokinetics of anticancer agent 2’-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-‘-D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine in rats. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1994, 33, 484-488.

 

100.     Hendry, L.B.; Chu, C.K.; Copland, J.A.; Mahesh, V.B. Antiestrogenic Piperidinediones Designed Prospectively using Computer Graphics and Energy Calculations of DNA-Ligand Complexes. J. Steroid Biochem. Molec, Biol. 1994, 48, 495-505.

 

101.     Hendry, L.B.; Chu, C.K.; Rosser, M.L.; Copland, J.A.; Wood, J.C.; Mahesh, V.B. Design of Novel Anti-estrogens. J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. 1994, 49, 269-280.

 

102.     Zhao, Y.F.; Yang, T.F.; Lee, M.G.; Chun, B.K.; Du, J.F.; Schinazi, R.F.; Lee, D.W.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure cyclopropyl carbocyclic nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1994, 35, 5405-5408.

 

103.     Schinazi, R.F.; Gosselin, G.; Faraj, A.; Korba, B.E.; Liotta, D.C.; Chu, C.K.; Mathe, C.; Imbach, J.-L.; Sommadossi, J.-P. Pure Nucleoside Enantiomers of -2’,3’-Dideoxycytidine Analogs are Selective Inhibitors of Hepatitis B Virus In Vitro. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 1994, 38, 2172-2174.

 

104.     Doshi, K.J.; Boudinot, F.D.; Gallo, J.M.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Brain targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides: In vitro and in vivo evaluations of 6-chloro-2’,3’-dideoxypurine, a lipophilic prodrug of 2’,3’-dideoxyinosine, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemother. 1994, 5, 304-311.

 

105.     Beach, J.W.; Jeong, L.S.; Kim, H.O.; Nampalli, S.; Shanmunagathan, K.; Chu, C.K. Nucleosides and Derivatives in Anti-HIV Drug Development: Challenges, Strategies and Prospects Baba, M.; Mohan, P. Eds., Harwood Academic Publishers.

 

106.     Hong, C.I.; West, C.R.; Bernacki, R.J.; Chu, C.K. Nucleoside-ether lipid conjugates as biotransformed prodrugs of antitumor and antiviral nucleosides. J. Lipid Mediators, 1994, 4.11, 159-161.

 

107.     Chu, C.K.; Ma, T.W.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Wang, C.G.; Xiang, Y.J.; Pai, S.B.; Yao, G.-Q.; Cheng, Y.-C. Use of 2-Fluoro-5-methyl-‘-L-arabinofurano-syluridine(L-FMAU) as a novel antiviral agent for hepatitis B and Epstein-Barr virus, Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother. 1995, 39, 979-981.

 

108.     Yang, T.F.; Kotra, L.P.; Teng, Q.T.; Nagiib, F.N.; Sommadossi, J.-P.; el Kouni, M.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of [4-(Hydroxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl] nucleosides as a Novel Class of Uridine Phosphorylase Inhibitors, Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 983-986.

 

109.     Liang, C.Y.; Lee, D.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of L-Dioxolane Nucleosides and Related Chemistry, J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 1546-1553.

 

110.     Xiang, Y.J.; Teng, Q.; Chu, C.K. Novel C-Nucleoside Analogues of 1,3-Dioxolane: Synthesis of Enantiomeric (2’R,4’S)- and (2’S, 4’R)-2-[4-(Hydroxymethyl)-1,3-Dioxolan-2-yl]-1,3-Thiazol-4-Carboxamide, Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 3781-3784.

 

111.     Grove, K.L.; Guo, X.; Liu, S.-H.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. AntiCancer Activity of β-L-Dioxolane-cytidine, a Novel Nucleoside Analogue With the Unnatural L Configuration. Cancer Res. 1995, 55, 3008-3011.

 

112.     Wright, J.D.; Ma, T.W.; Chu, C.K.; Boudinot, F.D. Pharmacokinetics of 1-(2-Deoxy-2-Fluoro-‘-L-Arabinofuranosyl)-5-Methyluracil (L-FMAU) in Rats Pharm. Res. 1995, 12, 1350-1353.

 

113.     Manouilov, K.K.; Fedorov, I.I.; White, C.A.; Boudinot, F.D.; Kotra, L.P.; Schinazi, R.F.; Hong, I.L.; Chu, C.K. Targeting for the lymphatic system by an Anti-HIV nucleoside Prodrug dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-AZdU (DPP-AZdU), Antiviral Chemistry and Chemother. 1995, 6, 230-238.

 

114.     Xiang, Y.J.; Kotra, L.P.; Chu, C.K.Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activities of 2’,3’-Dideoxy-2’,2’-Difluoro-‘-L-Ribofuranosyl Pyrimidine and Purine Nucleosides Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1995, 5, 743-748.

 

115.     Xiang, Y.J.; Cavalcanti, S,;Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Pai, S. B.; Zhu, Y.L.; Cheng, Y. C. Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) and Anti-Human Hepatitis B Virus (HBV Activities of 2’,3’-Dideoxy-2’-Fluror-‘-L-Threo -Pentofuranosyl Nucleosides Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 1995, 5 , 877-880.

 

116.     Mar. E.-C.; Chu, C.K.; Lin, J.-C. Some Nucleoside Analogs with Anti-Human Immunodefieincy Virus Activity Inhibit Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus, Antiviral Chemistry & Chemother. 1995, 28, 1-11.

 

117.     Manouilov, K.K.; White, C.A.; Boudinot, F.D.; Fedorov, I.I.; Chu, C.K. Lymphatic distribution of 3-azido-3’-deoxythymidine and 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine in mice. Drug Disposition and Metabolism 1995, 23, 655-658.

 

118.     Zhao, Y.F.; Yang, T.-F.; Lee, M.G.; Lee, D.W.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis of (1S,2R)-Cyclopropyl Carbocyclic Nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 5236-5246.

 

119.     Lee, M.G.; Lee, D.W.; Newton, M.G.; Chun, M.W.; Chu, C.K. Enantioselective Synthesis of Cyclopropyl Carbocyclic L-Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 3781-3784.

 

120.     Rajagopalan, R.; Gao, Z.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; McClure, H.M.; Boudinot, F.D. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of (-)-‘-D-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane and its metabolite, dioxolane guanosine, using ultraviolet and on-line radiochemical detection.Journal of Chromatogr. B: Biomedical Applications 1995, 672, 119-124

 

121.     Kukhanova, M.; Liu, S.-H.; Mozzherin, D.; Lin, T.-S.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. L- and D-Enantiomers of 2’, 3’-Dideoxycytidine 5’-Triphosphate Analogs as Substrates for Human DNA Polymerases. J. Biol. Chem., 1995, 39, 23055-23059.

 

122.     Zhao, Y.-F.; Lee, M.G.; Yang, T.-F.; Chun, B.K.; Du, J.-F.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis of Cyclopropyl Carbocyclic Nucleosides. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1995, 14(3-5), 303-305.

 

123.     Du, J.-F.; Qu, F.-C.; Lee, D.W.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. 1,3-Dioxolane C-Nucleosides: Asymmetric Synthesis of Four Stereoisomers of 2’-[2-(Hydroxymethyl)-1,3’Dioxolan-5-yl)]-1,3-Thiazole-4-Carboxamide. Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 45, 8167-8170.

 

124.     Lee, M.G.; Chu, C.K.; Pai, S.B.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chun, M.W.; Chung, W.K. Dioxolane Cytosine Nucleosides as Anti-Hepatitis B Agents. Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett. 1995, 5, 2011-2014.

 

125.     Rajagopalan, P.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K.; Tennant, B.C.; Baldwin, B.H.; Schinazi, R.F. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-D-2,6-Diaminopurine Dioxolane and Its Metabolite, Dioxolane Guanosine, in Woodchucks (Marmota monax). Antiviral Chem. and Chemother. 1996, 7, 65-70.

 

126.     Pai, S.B.; Liu, S.-H.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. Inhibition of Hepatitis B virus by a novel L-nucleoside, 2-Fluoro-5-methyl-‘-L-arabinofuranosyl uridine. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother. 1996, 40, 380-386.

 

127.     Yao, G.-Q.; Liu, S.-H.; Chou, E.; Kukhanova, M.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus replication by a novel L-nucleoside, 2’-Fluoro-5-methyl-‘-L-arabinofuranosyl uridine. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1996, 51, 941-947.

 

128.     Giri, I.; Bolon, P.J.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of 2’-C-a-Methyl-2’,3’-Dideoxynucleosides. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1996, 15, 183-204.

 

129.     Lee, C.S.; Du, J.-F.; Chu, C.K. Syntheses of 2’,3’-Dideoxy-L-Glycero-Pentofuranosyl C-Nucleosides. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1996, 15, 1223-1236.

 

130.     Ibrahim, S.S.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Physicochemical properties, bioconversion and disposition of lipophilic prodrugs of 2’,3’-dideoxycytidine. Antiviral Chem. & Chemother. 1996, 7, 167-172.

 

131.     El Kouni, M.H.; Naguib, F.N.M.; Panzica, R.P.; Otter, B.A.; Chu, S.-H.; Gosselin, G.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Shealy, Y.F.; Goudgaon, N.; Ozerov, A.A.; Ueda, T.; Iltzsch, M.H. Effects of Modifications in the Pentose Moiety and Conformational Changes on the Binding of Nucleoside Ligands to Uridine Phosphorylase from Toxoplasma Gondii. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1996, 51, 1687-1700.

 

132.     Rajagopalan, P.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K.; Tennant, B.C.; Baldwin, B.H.; Schinazi, R.F. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-2’,3’-Dideoxy-3’-thiacytidine in Woodchucks. Antiviral Agents and Chemother. 1996, 40, 642-645.

 

133.     Hong, C.I.; Nechaev, A.; Kirisits, A.J.; Vig, R.; West, C.R.; Manouilov, K.K.; Chu, C.K. Nucleoside Conjugates. 15. Synthesis and Biological Activity of anti-HIV Nucleoside Conjugates of Ether and Thioether Phospholipids. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 1771-1777.

 

134.     Ma, T.-W.; Pai, S.B.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Kim, H.-B.; Wang, C.-G.; Newton, M.G.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chu, C.K. Structure-Activity Relationships of 2’-Fluoro-‘-L-Pyrimidine Nucleosides as Anti-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Agents. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 2835-2843.

 

135.     Bolon, P.J.; Wang, P.; Chu, C.K. Anti-Human Immunodeficiency and Anti-Hepatittis B Virus Activities of β-L-2’,3’-Dideoxy Purine Nucleosides. Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett. 1996, 6(14), 1657-1662.

 

136.     Wright, J.D.; Ma, T.W., Chu, C.K.; Boudinot, F.D. Discontinuous Oral Absorption Pharmacokinetic Model and Bioavailability of 1-(2-Fluoro-5-Methyl-β-L-arabinofuranosyl)uracil (L-FMAU) in Rats. Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 1996, 17, 197-207.

 

137.     Koudriakova, T.; Manouilov, K.K.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Kotra, L.P.; Boudinot, F.D.; Cretton-Scott, E.; Sommadossi, J.-P.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. In vitro and in vivo          Evaluation of 6-Azido-2’,3’-dideoxy-2’-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosylpurine (FAAddP) and N6-Methyl-2’3’-dideoxy-2-fluoro--D-arabinofuranosyladenine (FMAddA) as Prodrugs of the Anti-HIV Nucleosides, 2’-F-ara-ddA and 2’-F-ara-ddI. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 4676-4681.

 

138.     Kotra, L.P.; Manouilov, K.K.; Creton-Scott, E.; Sommadossi, J.P.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis, Biotransformation and Pharmacokinetic Studies of 9-(β-D-Arabinofuranosyl)-6-azidopurine (6-AAP): A Prodrug for Ara-A Designed to Utilize the Azide Reduction Pathway. J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 5202-5207.

 

139.     Yang, T.-F.; Kim, H.B.; Kotra, L.P.; Chu, C.K. Design and Synthesis of 2’-Hydroxyethylcyclopropyl Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 8849-8852.

 

140.     Xiang, Y.-J.; Du, J.-F.; Chu, C.K. Syntheses of 2’,3’-Dideoxy-D-C-Nucleosides from g-Lactone. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1996, 15, 1821-1834.

 

141.     Chen, H.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K.; McClure, H.M.; Schinazi, R.F. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-β-D-2-Aminopurine Dioxolane and (-)b-D-2-Amino-6-chloropurine Dioxolane and their Antiviral Metabolite (-)-β-D-Dioxolane Guanine in Rhesus Monkeys. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother., 1996, 40, 2332-2336.

 

142.     Chu, C.K. Nucleosides are an inexhaustible source of chemotherapeutic agents. Nucleic Acid Symposium Series 1996, 35, 1-2.

 

143.     Cui, L.; Schinazi, R.F.; Gosselin, G.; Imbach, J.-L.; Chu, C.K.; Rando, R.F.; Revankar, G.R.; Sommadossi, J.-P. Effect of β-enantiomeric and racemic nucleoside analogues on mitochondrial functions in HepG2 cells: Implications for predicting drug hepatotoxicity. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1996, 52, 1577-1584.

 

144.     Moore, L.E.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K. Preclinical pharmacokinetics of -L-dioxolane-cytidine, a novel anticancer agent, in rats. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1997, 39, 532-536.        

 

145.     Lee, M.G.; Du, J.F.; Chun, M.W.; Chu, C.K. Enantiomeric Synthesis of L-(or 1R, 2S)- Carbocyclic Cyclopropyl Nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 1991-1995.

 

146.     Ma, T.W.; Du, J.F.; Chu, C.K. Drug Design and Synthesis of Anti-HBV Agents. Antiviral Therapy, 1996, 1, 33-38.

 

147.     Manouilov, K.K.; Xu, Z.-S.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Lymphatic targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides: distribution of 2’,3’-dideoxyinosine (ddI) after intravenous and oral administration of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl prodrug (DPP-ddI) in mice. Antiviral Research 1997, 34, 91-99.

 

148.     Chen,H.; Manouilov, K.K.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; McClure, H.M.; Boudinot, F.D. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of (-)-b-D-2-aminopurine dioxolane and (-)-β -D-2-amino-6-chloropurine dioxolane and their metabolite (-)-b-D-dioxolane guanine in monkey serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of Chromatography 1997, 691, 425-432.

 

149.     Ma, T.W.; Lin, J.-S.; Newton, M.G.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and Anti-HBV Activity of 9-(2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-b-L-arabinofuranosyl)purine Nucleosides. J. Med. Chem. 1997, 40, 2750-2754.

 

150.     Wang, P.Y.; Agrofoglio, L.A.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis of L-Cyclopentyl Carbocyclic Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 4207-4210.

 

151.     Manouilov, K.K.; Xu, Z.-S.; Manouilova, L.S.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Lymphatic targeting of anti-HIV nucleosides: Pharmacokinetics of 3’-deoxy-2’,3’-didehydrothymidine (d4T) after intravenous and oral administration of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl prodrug (DPP-d4T) to mice. Antiviral Chem. & Chemother. 1997, 8, 409-415.

 

152.     Du, J.F.; Surzhykov, S.; Lin, J.S.; Newton, M.G.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis, Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of novel oxaselenolane nucleosides. J. Med. Chem. 1997,40, 2991-2993

 

153.     Manouilov, K.K.; Manouilova, L.S.; Boudinot, F.D.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Biotransformation and Pharmacokinetics of Prodrug 9-(b-D-1,3-Dioxolan-4-yl)-2-Aminopurine and its Antiviral Metabolite 9-(b-D-1,3-Dioxolan-4-yl)Guanine in Mice. Antiviral Research 1997, 35, 187-193.

 

154.     Liang, C.Y.; Ma, T.W.; Cooperwood, J.S.; Du, J.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of L-ribofuranosyl C-nucleosides. Carbohydrate Research 1997, 303, 33-38.

 

155.     Witcher, J.W.; Boudinot, F.D.; Baldwin, B.H.; Ascenzi, M.A.; Tennant, B.D.; Du, J.F.; Chu, C.K. Pharmacokinetics of 1-(2-Fluoro-5-methyl-b-L-arabinofuranosyl)uracil (L-FMAU) in Woodchucks. Antimicro. Agents & Chemother. 1997, 41, 2184-2187.

 

156.     Kotra, L.P.; Xiang, Y.-J.; Newton, M.G.; Schinazi, R.F.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chu, C.K. Structure-Activity Relationships of 2’-Deoxy-2’,2’-difluoro-L-ribofuranosyl. J. Med. Chem. 1997, 40, 3635-3644.

 

157.     Kotra, L.P.; Wang, P.P.; Bartlett, M.G.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Xu, Z.-S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. 4-Azido-2-pyrimidinone Nucleosides and Related Chemistry. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 7267-7271.

 

158.     Grove, K.L.; Guo, X.; Liu, S.H.; Kukhanova, M.; Chu, C.K. b-L-(-)-dioxolane cytidine (b-L-(-)-OddC) as a potent compound for the treatment of cancer. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1997, 16, 1229-1233.

 

159.     Xu, A.S.L.; Chu, C.K.; London, R.E. The facilitated and non-facilitated membrane transport of 2’-fluoro-5-methyl-‘-L-arabinofuranosyluracil in erythrocytes: an 19F NMR study. Biochemical Pharmacol. 1998, 55, 1611-1698.

 

160.     Hong, J.H.; Chun, B.K.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of Novel D-2’,3’-Dideoxy-2’,3’-endo-methylene Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 225-228.

 

161.     Chu, C.K.; Hong, J.H.; Choi, Y.S.; Du, J.; Lee, K.; Chun, B.K.; Boudinot, F.D.; Peek, S.F.; Korba, B.E.; Tennant, B.C. and Cheng, Y.-C. L-FMAU Drugs of the Future, 1998, 23, 821-826.

 

162.     Aguesse-Germon, S.; Liu, S.-H.; Chevallier, M.; Pichoud, C.; Jamard, C.; Borel, C.; Chu, C.K.; Trpo, C.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Zoulim, F. Inhibitory Effect of 2’-Fluoro-5-methyl-‘-L-Arabinofuranosyl-uracil on Duck Hepatitis B Virus Replication. Antimicrob. Agents & Chemother. 1998, 42, 369-376.

 

163.     Du, J.F.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis of oxazolidine Nucleosides and Related Chemistry. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1998, 17, 1-13.

 

164.     Hong, J.H.; Choi, Y.S.; Chun, B.K.; Lee, K.; Chu, C.K. Current Status of Anti-HBV Chemotherapy. Arch. Pharma. Res. 1998, 21, 89-105.

 

165.     Kotra, L.P.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of 2,3-Dideoxy-2,2-difluoro-L-glycero-pentofuranosyl Nucleosides. Carbohydrate Res. 1998, 306, 69-80.

 

166.     Hong, J.H.; Lee, K.; Choi, Y.S.; Chu, C.K. Enantiomeric Synthesis of 3’-Fluoro-Apionucleosides Using Claisen Rearrangement. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 3443-3446.

 

167.     Choi, Y.S.; Lee, K.; Hong, J.H.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of L-2’-Fluoro-2’, 3’-Unsaturated Purine Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 4437-4440.

 

168.     Hong, J.H.; Gao, M.-Y.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of Novel 3’-C-Methyl-4’-Thio Apionucleosides via Highly Enatioselective Elaboration of Quaternary Carbon by [3,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement. Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 40, 231-234.

 

169.     Chu, C.K.; Boudinot, F.D.; Peek, S.F.; Korba, B.E.; Hong, J.H.; Choi, Y.S.; Gerin, J.L.; Cote, P.J.; Tennant, B.C.; Cheng, Y.-C. Preclinical Investigation of L-FMAU as an anti-hepatitis B virus agent. Therapies for Viral Hepatitis 1998, 32, 303-312.

 

170.     Wang, P.Y.; Hong, J.H.; Cooperwood, J.S.; Chu, C.K. Recent advances in L-nucleosides: chemistry and biology. Antiviral Research, 1998, 40, 19-44.

 

171.     Wang, P.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of L-Carbocyclic 2’,3’-Didehydro-2’,3’-Dideoxyadenosine. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 1998, 8, 1585-1588.

 

172.     Du, J.F.; Choi, Y.S.; Lee, K.; Chun, B.K.; Hong, J.H.; Chu, C.K. A Practical Synthesis of L-FMAU from L-Arabinose. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 1999, 18, 187-195.

 

173.     Cho, S.; Volpe, B.T.; Bae, Y.; Huang, O.; Choi, H.J.; Gal, J.; Park, L.C.H.; Chu, C.K.; Du, J.;Joh, T. Blockade of Tetrahydrobiopterin Synthesis Protects Neurons after Transient Forebrain         Ischemia in Rat: A Novel Role for the Cofactor. Journal of Neuroscience, 1999, 19, 878-889.     

 

174.     Lee, K.; Choi, Y.S.; Gullen, E.; Schlueter-Wirtz, S.; Schinazi, R.F.; Cheng, Y.C.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and anti-HIV and anti-HBV activities of 2’-fluoro-2’,3’-unsaturated L-nucleosides. J. Med. Chem. 1999, 42, 1320-1328.           

 

175.     Chun, B.K. and Chu, C.K. Enantiomeric Synthesis of Carbocyclic C-Nucleoside, (-)-9-Deazaaristeromycin. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 3309-3312.

 

176.     Wang, P.; Agrofoglio, L.A.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Chiral Synthesis of Carbocyclic Analogs of L-Ribofuranosides. J. Org. Chem., 1999, 64, 4173-4178.

 

177.     Qu, F.C.; Hong, J.H.; Du, J.F.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis of 1,3-Dioxolanyl Thiazole, Selenazole, and Triazole C-Nucleosides. Tetrahedron, 1999, 55, 9073-9088.

 

178.     Lin, J.-S.; Kira, T.; Gullen, E.; Qu, F.C.; Choi, Y.S.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. Structure Activity Relationship of L-Dioxolane Uridine Analogues against EBV Replication. J. Med. Chem., 1999, 42, 2212-2217.

 

179.     Wang, P.P.; Kotra, L.P.; Chu, C.K.; Bartlett, M.G. Structure Determination of 4-Azido-2-pyrimidinone Nucleoside Analogs Using Mass Spectrometry. J. Mass Spectrom.,            1999, 34, 724-732.

 

180.     Gero, A.M.; Perrone, G.; Brown, D.M.; Hall, S.T.; Chu, C.K. L-Purine Nucleosides as Selective Antimalarials. Nucleosides & Nucleotides , 1999, 18, 885-889.

 

181.     Tan, X.; Chu, C.K.; Boudinot, F.D. Development and optimization of anti-HIV nucleoside analogs and prodrugs: A review of their cellular pharmacology, structure-activity relationships and pharmacokinetics. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 1999, 39, 117-151.

 

182.     Wang, P.; Gullen, B.; Newton, M.G.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Asymmetric Synthesis and Antiviral Activities of L-Carbocyclic 2’,3’-Didehydro-2’,3’-Dideoxy-Nucleosides. J. Med. Chem., 1999, 42, 3390-3399.

 

183.     Lee, K.; Choi, Y.S.; Hong, J.H.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. New Classes of Fluorinated L-Nucleosides; Synthesis and Antiviral Activity. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1999, 18, 537-540.

 

184.     Brown, D.M.; Hall, S.T.; Netting, A.G.; Chun, B.K.; Choi, Y.S.; Chu, C.K.; Gero, A.M. L-Nucleoside Analogues as Potential Antimalarials that Selectively Target Plasmodium Falciparum Adenosine Deaminase. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1999, 18, 2521-2532.

 

185.     Wang, P.; Bolon, P.J.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Stereoselective Synthesis of b-L-2’,3’-Didehydro-2’,3’-Dideoxy Purine Nucleosides. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 1999, 18, 2819-2835.

 

186.     Chen, H.; Schinazi, R.F.; Rajagopalan, P.; Gao, Z.L.; Chu, C.K.; McClure, H.M.; Boudinot, F.D. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-β -D-Dioxolane Guanine and Prodrug (-)-b-D-2, 6-Diaminopurine Dioxolane in Rats and Monkeys. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1999, 15, 1625-1630.

 

187.     Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Xiang, Y.J.; Newton, M.G.; Schinazi, R.F.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of 2’,3’-Dideoxy-2’-Fluoro-L-threo-Pentofuranosyl Nucleosides as Potential Antiviral Agents. Nucleosides & Nucleotides , 1999, 18, 2233-2252.

 

188.     Chun, B.K.; Hong, J.H.; Newton, M.G.; Chu, C.K. Syntheses of Novel D-2’,3’-Dideoxy-2’,3’-endo-Methylene-Nucleosides. J. Org. Chem., 2000, 65, 685-693.

 

189.     Pierra, C.; Olgen, S.; Cavalcanti, S.C.H.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and Antiviral Activities of Enatiomeric 1-[2-(Hydroxymethyl)Cyclopropyl] Methyl Nucleosides. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 2000,19, 253-268.

 

190.     Cooperwood, J.S.; Boyd, V.A.; Gumina, G.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of L-3’-Hydroxymethylribonucleosides. Nucleosides & Nucleotides, 2000, 19, 219-236.

 

191.     Tan, X.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K.; Egron, D.; Perigaud, C.; Gosselin, G.; Imbach, J.-L. Pharmacokinetics of bis(t-butyl-SATE)-AZTMP, a bispivaloylthioethyl prodrug for intracellular delivery of zidovudine monophosphate, in mice. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, 2000, 11, 203-212.

 

192.     Bazmi, H.Z.; Hammond, J.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Mellors, J.W. K65R Mutation in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Causes Resistance To (-)-b-D-Dioxolane-Guanosine and Reverses AZT Resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2000, 44, 1783-1788.

 

193.     Gumina, G.; Chong, Y.; Choi, Y.S.; Chu, C.K. Stereoselective Synthesis of Carbocyclic L-4’-Fluoro-2’,3’-Dideoxyadenosine. Organic Letters, 2000, 2, 1229-1231.

 

194.     Choi, Y.S.; Ling, L.; Grill, S.; Gullen, E.; Lee, C.S.; Gumina, G.; Tsujii, E.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chu, C.K. Structure-Activity Relationships of (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)uracil and Related Pyrimidine Nucleosides as Antiviral Agents for Herpes Virus. J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43, 2538-2546.

 

195.     Hong, J.H.; Gao, M.Y.; Choi, Y.S.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of Novel 3’-C-Methyl-Apionucleosides: An Asymmetric Construction of a Quaternary Carbon by Claisen Rearrangement. Carbohydrate Res., 2000, 328, 37-48.

 

196.     Chun, B.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of 2’,3’-Dideoxy-3’-fluoro-L-ribonucleosides as potential antiviral agents from D-Sorbitol. Carbohydrate Res., 2000, 328, 49-59.         

 

197.     Chu, C.K.; Ma, L.; Olgen, S.; Pierra, C.; Du, J.; Gumina, G.; Gullen, E.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Schinazi, R.F. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of Oxaselenolane Nucleosides. J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43, 3906-3912.

 

198.     Li, L.; Dutschman, G.; Gullen, E.; Tsujii, E.; Grill, S.; Choi, Y.S.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. Metabolism and Mode of Inhibition of Varicella-Zoster Virus by L-b-5-Bromovinyl-(2-hydroxymethyl)-(1,3-dioxolanyl)uracil Is Dependent on Viral Thymidine Kinase. Mol. Pharmacol., 2000, 58, 1109-1114.

 

199.     Kira, T.; Grill, S.P.; Dutschman, G.E.; Lin, J.-S.; Qu, F.; Choi, Y.S.; Chu, C.K.; Cheng, Y.-C. Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Activity of β-L-5-Iododioxolane Uracil Is Dependent on EBV Thymidine Kinase. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemother., 2000, 44, 3278-3284.

 

200.     Chong, Y.; Gumina, G.; Chu, C.K. Divergent Synthesis of D- and L- Carbocyclic 4’-Fluoro-2’,3’-Dideoxynucleosides As Potential Antiviral Agents. Tetrahedron: Asymetry, 2000, 11, 4853-4875.

 

201.     Furman, P.A.; Jeffrey, J.; Kiefer, L.L.; Feng, J.; Anderson, K.S.; Borrota-Esoda, K.; Hill, E.; Copeland, W.C.; Chu, C.K.; Sommadossi, J.P.; Liberman, I.; Schinazi, R.F.;Painter, G.R. Mechanism of Action of 1-b-D-2, 6-Diaminopurine Dioxolane: A Prodrug of the HIV-1 Inhibitor 1-b-D-Dioxolane Guanosine. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemother., 2001, 45(1), 158-165.

 

202.     Lee, K.; Chu, C.K. Understanding the Mode of Action of L-Nucleosides as Antiviral Agents: A Molecular Modeling Approach. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2001, 45, 138-144.

 

203.     Cho, S.; Kim, Y.; Cruz, M.O.; Park, E.-M.; Chu, C.K.; Lee, K.; Joh, T. H. Repression of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in activated microglia by N-acetyl-O-methyldopamine: Protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Glia, 2001,33, 324-333.

 

204.     Chun, B.K.; Song, G.Y.; Chu, C.K. Stereocontrolled Syntheses of Carbocyclic C-Nucleosides and Related Compounds. J. Org. Chem., 2001, 66, 4852-4858.

 

205.     Gumina, G.; Song, G.Y.; Chu, C.K. Advances in Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis B Virus. Antiviral Chem. Chemother., 2001, 12, 89-112.

 

206.     Korba, B.E.; Cote, P.; Baldwin, B.H.; Wells, F.V.; Peek, S.F.; Hornbuckle, W.E.; Toshkov, I.A.; Chu, C.K.; Gerin, J.L.; Tennant, CB.C.; Jacob, J.R. Antiviral Activity of clevudine [L-FMAU, (1-(2-fluoro-5-methyl-beta, 1-arabinofuranosyl) uracil)] against woodchuck hepatitis virus replication and gene expression in chronically infected woodchucks (Marmota monax). Hepatology, 2001, 33, 254-266.

 

207.     Choo, H.; Chong, Y.H.; Chu, C.K. Solid Phase Synthesis of Carbocyclic L-2’-Deoxynucleosides, Organic Letters, 2001, 3, 1471-1473.

 

208.     Clark, T.N.; White, C.A.; Chu, C.K.; Bartlett, M.G. Determination of 3’-Azido-2’-3’-Dideoxyridine (AZDU) in maternal Plasma, Amniotic Fluid, Fetal and Placental Tissues by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, J. Of ChromatographyB, 2001,755,165-172.

 

209.     Gumina, G.; Song, G.Y.; Chu, C.K. L-Nucleosides as chemotherapeutic agents-mini review, FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2001, 202, 9-15.

 

210.     Gumina, G.; Schinazi, R.F.; and Chu, C.K. Synthesis and potent anti-HIV activity of L-3’-fluoro unsaturated cytidine, Organic Letters, 2001, 3, 4177-4180.

 

211.     Song, G.Y.; Paul, V.; Choo, H.; Morrey, J.; Sidwell, R.W.; Schinazi, R. F.; and Chu, C.K. Enantiomeric Synthesis of D- and L-Cyclopentenyl Nucleosides and their Antiviral Activity Against HIV and West Nile Virus, J. Med. Chem., 2001, 44, 3985-3993.

 

212.     Song, G.Y.; Naguib, F.N.M.; el Kouni, M.;, Chu, C. K. Synthesis of carbocyclic analogs as potential orotidine decarboxylase inhibitors, Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids, 2002, 20, 1915-1925.

 

213.     Lee, K.; Choi, Y.S.; Gumina, G.; Zhou, W.; Schinazi, R.F.; and Chu, C.K. Structure-Activity Relationships of 2’-Fluoro-2’, 3’-unsaturated D-Nucleosides as Anti-HIV-1 Agents. J. Med. Chem., 2002,45,1313-1320.

 

214.     Chong, Y.H.; Chu, C.K. Efficient synthesis of 2-deoxy-L-erythro-pentose (2-deoxy-L-ribose) from L-arabinose.Carbohydrate Research, 2002, 332, 397-402.

 

215.     Choi, Y.S.; Choo, H.; Chong, Y. Lee, S.; Olgen, S.; Schinazi, R.F.; and Chu, C.K. Synthesis and Potent Anti-HIV Activity of L-2’,3’-Didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-2’-fluoro-4’-thiocytidine. Organic Letters,2002,4, 305-307.

 

216.     Ray, A.S.; Yang, Z.; Chu, C.K. and Anderson, K.S. A Novel Use of a guanosine prodrug Approach to convert D4G into a viable Antiviral Agent. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemother., 2002, 46,887-891.

 

217.     Cooperwood, J.S.; Gumina, G.; Vorobiev, A.; Boudinot, F.D.; Chu, C.K. Nucleoside Prodrugs- Recent Advances in Nucleoside: Chemistry and Chemotherapy, C.K. Chu Ed., 2002, Elsevier.

 

218.     Gumina, G.; Chu, C. K. Synthesis of L-Oxetanocin, Organic Letters, 2002, 4, 1147-1149.

 

219.     Jin, Y.H.; Chu, C. K. Efficient and practical synthesis of D-cyclopent-3-enone, the intermediate for the synthesis of carbocyclic nucleosides, Tet. Letts., 2002, 43, 4141-4143.

 

220.     Ray, A.S.; Yang, Z.J.; Shi, J.; Hobbs, a.; Schinazi, R. f.; Chu, C. K.; Anderson, K.S. Insight into the molecular mechanism of inhibition and drug resistance of HIV-1 RT with carbovir triphosphate, Biochemistry, 2002, 41, 5150-5162.

 

221.     Gumina, G.; Chong, Y.H.; Choo, H.; Song, G.Y.; Chu, C. K. L-Nucleosides: antiviral and molecular mechanism, Current topics in Med. Chem. 2002, Current Topics in Med. Chem. 2002, 2, 1065-1086.

 

222.     Lee, K.; Zhou, W.; Kelley, L.C.; Momany, C.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of Vinyl fluoride containing D- and L-pyranosyl nucleosides from D-glyceraldehyde, Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 2002, 13, 1589-1598.

 

223.     Chong, Y. H.; Chu, C. K. Understanding the unique mechanism of L-FMAU (clevudine) against heparitis B virus: molecular dynamics studies, Bioorg. Chem. Med. Chem. Letts. 2002, 12,3459-3462.

 

224.     Chong, Y.; Borroto-Esoda, K.; Furman, P.A.; Schinazi, R.F.; and Chu, C.K. Molecular mechanisms of DAPD/DXG against zidovudine- and lamivudine- drug resistance drug resitant mutant: A molecular modeling approach, Antimicrob. Chemistry Chemother., 2002, 13, 115-128.

 

225.     Stuyver, L.J.; Lostia, S.; Adams, M.; Mathew, J.S.; Pai, B. S.; grier, J.P.; Tarnish, P.M.; Choi, Y.S.; Chong, Y.H.; Choo, H. Chu, c.K.; Otto, M.J.; Schinazi, R.F. Antiviral activity and cellular toxicity of 2’,3’-dideoxy-2’,3’-didehydrocytidine analogs, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 2002, 46, 3854-3860.

 

226.     Chong, Y.H.; Choo, H.A.; Choi, Y.S.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.Stereosynthesis and antiviral activity of D-2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3’-2’-fluoro-4’-thionucleosides, J. Med. Chem., 2002, 45, 4888-4898.

 

227.     Chu, C.K.; Jin, Y.H.; Baker, R.O.; Huggins,J. Antiviral Activity of Cyclopentenyl nucleosides against Orthopox viruses (Smallpox, Monkeypox and Cowpox), Bioorganic & Med. Chem. Letts, 2003 13, 9-11.

 

228.     Stuyver, L.J.; Whitaker, McBrayer, T.R.; Hrtnandez, B.I.; Lostia, S. ; Tarnish, P.M. Ramesh, M.; Chu, C. K.; Shi, J.; Jordan, R.; Watnabe, K.A.; Rachakonda, S.; Otto, M.J.; Schnazi, A ribonucleoside analogue that selectively blocks the replication of bovine viral diarrhea and hepatitis C viruses in culture, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother., 2003, 47, 244-254.

 

229.     Choo, H.A.; Chong, Y.H.; Choi, Y.S.; Mathew, J.; Schinazi, R.F; Chu, C. K. Synthesis, anti-HIV activity and molecular mechanism of drug resistance of L-2’,3’-didehydro-2,3’-dideoxy-2’-fluoro-4’-thionucleosides, J. Med. Chem. , 2003, 46, 389-398.

 

230.     Chen, H.; Pai, B.; Hurwitz, S.J.; Chu, C.K.; Glazkova, Y.; MaClure, H.M.; Feitelstein, M.; Schinazi, R. F. Antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics of 1-(2,3-dideoxy-2-fluoro-β-L-glyceropent-2-enofuranosyl) cytosine, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2003, 47, 1922-1928.

 

231.     Choo, H.A.; Chong, Y.H.; Chu, C.K. The Role of 2,3’-unsaturation against 3TC resitance mutant in HIV reverse transcriptase, Bioorganic & Med. Chem. Letts., 2003,13, 1993-1996.

 

232.     Chong, Y.H.; Gumina, G.; Mathew, J.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. L-2’, 3’-Dihydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-fluoronucleosides: Synthesis, anti-HIV activity, chemical and enzymatic stability amd the mechanism of resistance, J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 3245-3256.

 

233.     Zhu, W.; Gumina, G.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C. K. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of L-β3’-C-cyano 2’, 3’-unsaturated nucleosides and L-3’-C-cyano-3’-deoxyribonucleosides, Tetrahedron, 2003, 59, 6423-6431.

 

234.     Jin, Y.H.; Liu, P.; Chu, C.K. Practical synthesis of D- & L-cyclopent-2-3none and and their utility for the synthesis of carbocyclic antiviral nucleosides against orthopox viruses (smallpox, Monkeypox and cowpoxvirus), J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 9012-9018.

 

235.     Chong, Y.H.; Akula, N.; Chu, C.K. Studies of molecular mechanism of tenofovir against 3TC- and AZT-resistance mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts. 2003, 13, 4019-4022.

 

236.     Ray, A.S.; Schinazi, R.F. Murakami, E.; Basavpthruni, A.; Shi, J.; Zorea, S.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C. K.; Anderson, Probing the mechanistic consequences of 5-fluoro substitution on cytidine nucleotide analogs incorporation by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Antiviral chem. Chemother, 2003, 14, 115-125.

 

237.     Kong, L.; cooperwood, J,; Huang, C.; Chu, C.K.; Boudinot, F.D. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxyuridine-5'-O-valinate-hydrochloride as a prodrug of the anti-HIV nucleoside 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxyuridine, Antimicrob. Chem. Chemother. 2003, 14, 263-270.

 

238.     Kong, Linghui, Cooperwood, John S., Oh, Chang H., Chu, Chung K., and Boudinot, F. Douglas. Simultaneous determination of 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine and novel prodrugs in rat plasma by liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography B, 2003, 795, 371-376.

 

239.     Stuyver, L.; McBrayer, T.R.; Tharnish, P.M.; Hassan, A. E.A.; Chu, C.K.; Pankiewicz, K.W.; Watanabe, K. A.; Schinazi, R.F.; Otto, M.J. Dynamics of subgenomic HCV replicon RNA levels in Huh7 cells after exposure to nucleoside antimetabolites, J. Virology, 2003, 77, 10689-10694.

 

240.     Chong, Y.H.; Stuyver, L.; Otto, M.J.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Mechanism of antiviral activities of 3’-substituted L-nucleosides against 3TC-resistant HBV polymerase: a molecular modeling approach. Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2003,14, 309-319.

 

241.     Chong, Y.H.; Chu, C. K. Understanding the molecular mechanism of drug resistance of anti-HIV nucleosides by molecular modeling, Frontiers in Bioscience, 2004, 9, 164-186.

 

242.     Chong, Y.H.; Choo, H.A.; Chu, C.K. Effects of fluorine substitution of cytosine analogs on the binding affinity to HIV-1 reserse transcriptase, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts. 2004, 14, 437-440.

 

243.     Park, E.M.; Joh, T.H.; Volpe, B.T.; Chu, C.K.; Song, G.; Cho, S. A neoroprotective role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in N-acethyl-O-methyldopamine-treated hippocampal neurons after exposure to in vitro and in vivo ischemia, Neuroscience, 2004, 123, 147-154.

 

244.     Song, J. Wang, X-L.; Xiang, Y.-J.; Chu, C. K.; Schinazi, R.; Zhao, K.Synthesis of β-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-2'-fluoro-3'-hydroxymethylarabinofuranosyl Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Chinese Chem. Lett, 2004, 15, 135-7.

 

245.     Zhu, W.; Chong, Y.H.; Choo, H.; Chong, Y.H. Mathews, J.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C. K. Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, mechanism of drug resistance of D-and L-β-3’-fluoro-2’, 3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-4’-thionucleosides, J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 1631-1640.

 

246.     Shi, J.X.; Ray, A.S.; Mathew, J.S.; Anderson, K.S.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. 2’, 3’-Didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxy are degraded to furfuryl alcohol under acidic conditions, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts, 2004, 14, 2159-2162.

 

247.     Chong, Y.H.; Chu, C.K. Molecular mechanism of dioxolane nucleosides against 3TC resistant HIVM184 mutant, Antiviral Research. 2004, 63, 7-13.

 

248.     Yadav, V.; Rais, R.; Naguib, F.N.M.; el Kouni, M.; Chu, C.K. Design, synthesis, molecular modeling and focused combinatorial library for lead optimization of benzylthioinosine analogs as subversive substrates of T. gondii adenosine kinase, J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 1987-1996.

 

249.     Hollecker, L.; Lostia, S.; McBrayer, T.R.; Chu, C. K. Stuyver, L.J.; Rachakonda, S.; Shi, J.; Watanabe, K. A. Synthesis of -βD- and β-L-3’-deoxypyrimidines and their antiviral evaluation on bovine virl diarrhea virus and hepatitis C virus in cell culture, Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2004, 15, 43-55.

 

250.     Zhou, W.; Gumina, G.; Chong, Y.H.; Wang, J.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis, structure-activity relationships and drug resistance of D-3’-fluoro-2’,3’-unsaturated nucleosides as anti-HIV agents, J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 3399-3408.

 

251.     Bondada, L.; Gumina, G.; Nair, R.; Ning, X.H.; Chu, C. K. Synthesis of novel spiro [2,3] hexane carbocyclic nucleosides via enzymatic resolution, Organic Letts.2004, Organic Lettrs. 2004, 6, 2531-2534.

 

252.     Yadav, v.; Chu, C.K. Molecular mechanism of Adeforvir sensitivity and resistance in HBV polymerase mutants: A molecular dynamic study, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts, 2004, 14, 4313-4317.

 

253.     Hernandez-Santiago, B.I.; Beltran, T.; Stuyver, L.; Chu, C. K.; Schinazi, R.F. Metabolism of the anti-hepatitis C virus nucleoside b-D-N4-hydroxycytidine in different liver cells, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 2004, 48, 4636-4642.

 

254.     Chen, X.; Zhou, W.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of 3’-fluoro-2’,3’-unsaturated-4’-ethynyl D- & L-furanosyl-nucleosides, J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 6034-6041.

 

255.     Asif, G.; Hurwitz, S.J.; Gumina, G.; Chu, C.K.; McClure, H.M.; Schinazi, R.F. Pharmacokinetics of the antiviral agent β-L-3’-fluoro-2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxycytidine in rhesus monkeys, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005, 49, 560-564.

 

256.     Shi, J.X.; Du, J.F.; Ma, T.w.; Pankiewicz, K.W.; Hassan, A.A.; Patterson, S.E.; Tharnish, P.M.; McBride, T.R.; Stuyver, l.J.; Stec, W.J. Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Schinazi, R.F. Synthesis and anti-HCV, anti-BVDV activity of a eries of 2’-deoxy-2’-fluororibonucleosides, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005, 13, 1641-1651.

 

257.     Shi, J.X.; Du, J.F.; Ma, T.w.; Pankiewicz, K.W.; Patterson, S.E ; A. E. Hassan; Tharnish, P.M.; McBride, T.R.; Stuyver, l.J.; MacBryer, T.R.; Lostia, S.; Chu, C.K.; Watanabe, K.A.; Schinazi, R.F. Synthesis and in vitro anti-HCV of β-D- and L-2’-deoxy-2’-fluororibonucleosides,. Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids, 2005, 24, 875-879.

 

258.     Choo, H.A. Chong, Y.H.; Gumina, G.; Chu, C. K. Advances in antiviral nucleosides in Frontiers in Nucleosides and Nucleic Acid, Schinazi and Liotta (Edition), IHL Press, 2005, 101-158.

 

259.     Ray, AS.; Hernandez-Santiago, B.I.; Mathew, J.S.; Murakami, E.; Bozeman, C.; Xie, M-Y.; Duchman, G.e.; Gullrn, E.; Yang, S. J.; Hurwitz, S.; Cheng, Y.C.; Chu, C.K.; MacClure, H.; Schinazi, R.F.; Anderson, K.S. Mechanism of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of β-D-6-cyclopropylamono-2’,3’-dihydro-2’,3’-dideoxyguanosine. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005, 49, 1994-2001.

 

260.     Wang, P.Y.; Adams, M.; Grier, J.P.; Pai, B.; Mathew, J.; Watanabe, K.A.; Otto, M. J.; Gumina, G.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Synthesis and in vitro anti-HIV activity of 2’-fluoro-2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxypurine nucleosides in Frontiers in Nucleosides and Nucleic Acid, Schinazi and Liotta (Edition), IHL Press, 2005, 227-234.

 

261.     Rais, R.H.; Safarjalani, O.N.; Yadav, V.; guarcello, V.; Kirk, M.; Chu, C. K.; Naguib, F. N. el Kouni, M. H. 6-Benzylthioinosine analogues as subversive substrate of toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase: activities and selective toxicities, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2005, 69, 1409-1419.

 

262.     Wang, J.; Jin, YH.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis, antiviral activity and mechanism of drug resistance of D-& L-2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-2’-fluoro-carbocyclic nucleosides, J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48, 3736-3748.

 

263.     Chu, C. K.; Yadav, V.; Chong, Y.H.; Schinazi, R.F. (-)-(2R, 4R)-(2-Hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)thymine (Dioxolane-thymine or DOT) against drug resistant HIV-1 mutants and its molecular mechanism, J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 3949-3952.

 

264.     Hernandez-Santiago, B.I.; Chen, H.; Asif, G.; Beltran, T.; Mao, S.; Hurwitz, S.J.; Grier, J.; McClure, H.M.; Chu, C.K.; Liotta, D.C.; Schinazi, R. F. Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of antiviral agent β-d-2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-oxa-5-fluorocytidine in cells and Rhesus monkeys, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005, 2589-2597.

 

265.     Choi, S.R.; Zhung, Z.P.; Acton, P.D.; Tjuvajev-Gelovani, J.; Doubrovin, M.; Chu, C. K.; Kung, H.F. SPECT imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression by [123I] FIAU, Academic Radiology 2005, 12, 798-805.

 

266.     Hammond, J.L.; Prikh, U.; Koontz, D.L.; Schleueter-wiryz, S.; Chu, C. K.; Bazmi, H.Z.; Schinazi, R.F.; Mellors, J.W. In vitro selection and analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to derivatives of β-2’,3’-didehydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005,49, 3930-3932.

 

267.     Casy, J.; cote, P.J.; Toshkov. I. A.; Chu, c. K.; Gerin, J.L.; Tennant, B.C.; Korba, B.E. Clevudine inhibits hepatitis Delta Virus viremia: a pilot studying chronically infected woodchucks, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 2005, 49, 4396-4399.

 

268.     Gupta, a.; Buolamwini, J.K.; Kim, Y.A.; Chu, C.K.; Naguib, F.N.; el Kouni, M.H. 6-Benzylthioinosine analogues promising antitoxoplasmic agents as inhibitors of the mammalian nucleoside transporter ENT1 (es), Biochem Pharmacol. 2005, 71, 69-73.

 

269.     Gadthula, S.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of β-D-3’-unsaturated nucleosides and β-d-3’-azido-3’-deoxyribofuranosylnucleosides, Nucleosides, Nuceotides, and Nucleic Acids, 2005, 24, 1707-1727.

 

270.     Pai, S. B.; Pai, R.B.; Xie, M.Y.; Becker, T.; Shi, J.X.; Thatnish, P.M.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F. Characterization of hepatitis B. virus inhibition by novel 2’-fluoro-2’,3’-unsaturated β-D- and L-nucleosides, Antiviral. Chem. Chemother. 2005, 16, 183-192.

 

271.     Gumina, G.; Chu, C. K. L-Nucleosides as chemotherapeutic agents, 2006. G.J. Peters Edition, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

 

272.     Choo, H.; Chen, X.; Yadav, V.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and Anti-HIV activity of D-and L-thietanose nucleosides, J. Med. Chem. 2006, 49, 1635-1647.

 

273.     Cho, J.H.; Sidwell, R.W.; Prichard, M.N.; Kern. E.R.; Chu C.K. Synthesis of cyclopentenol carbocyclic nucleosides as potentialantiviral agents against Orthopoxviruses and SARS, J. Med. Chem. 2006, 49, 1140-1148.

 

274.     Arumugham, B.; Kim, H.J.; Prichard, M.N.; Kern, E.R.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 7-deaza neplanocin A against orthopoxviruses (vaccinia and cowpox virus). Bioorg. Med. Chem. Letts.,2005, Bioor. Med. Chem Lett. 2006, 16, 285-287.

 

275.     Liang, Y.Z.; Narayanasamy, J.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Phosphoramidate and phosphate prodrugs of (-)-β-D-(2R, 4R)-dioxolane-thymine (DOT): synthesis, anti-HIV activity and stability study, Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2006, 14, 2178-2189.

 

276.     Peng, L.; Chu, C.K. Enantiomeric synthesis of carbocyclic analogs of D- and L-6-azapyrimidine ribofuranosyl nucleosides, Can. J. Chem. 2006,84, 248-254.

 

277.     Chu, C.K.; Gadthula, S.; Chen, X.; Choo, H.A.; Olgen, S.Y.; Barnard, D.L.; Sidwell, R.W. Antiviral activity of nucleoside analogs against SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Antiviral Chem. Chemother, 2006, 17, 285-289.

 

278.     Zhang, H.W.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K.; Synthesis of neplanocin F analogues as potential antiviral agents, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2006, 14, 8314-8322.

 

279.     Liang, Y.Z.; Narayanasamy, J.; Rapp, K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. PAMAM dendrimers and branched polyethyleneglycol (Nano-particles) prodrugs of (-)-β-D-(2R, 4R)-dioxolane-thymine (DOT) and their anti-HIV activity, Antiviral Chem Chemother., 2006, 17, 321-329.

 

280.     Liu, P.; Sharon, A.; Chu, C.K. Enantiomeric synthesis of carbocyclic D-4’-C-methylribonucleosides as potential antiviral agents, Tetrahedron Assymetry, 2006, 3304-3314.

 

281.     Rao, R. R; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Enantioselective synthesis and antiviral activity of purine and pyrimidine cyclopentenyl C-nucleosides, Bioorganic Med. Chem., 2007, 15, 839-846.

 

282.     Kim, Y.A.; Sharon, A.; Chu, C.K.; Rais, R. H.; Safarjalani, O.N.; Naguib, F.N.M/; El Kouni, M.H. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies of N-benzyladenosine analogs as potential anti-toxoplasma agents, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2007, 73, 1558-1572.

 

283.     Wang, J.N.; Jin, Y.H.; Rapp, K.L.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C. K. D- and L-2’3’-Dihydro-2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-fluoro-carbocyclic nucleosides: Anti-HIV activity and mechnism of resistance. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 1828-1839.

 

284.     Ray, A.S. ; Feng, Z.Y.; Murakami, E.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R.F.; Anderson, K.S. Interaction of 2’-deoxyguanosine triphosphate analog inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase with human mitochondrial DNA polymerase g. Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2007, 18, 25-33.

 

285.     Radi, M.; Adema, A.D.; Daft, J.R.; Cho, J.H.; Hoebe, E.K.; Alexander, E.M.; Peters, G.J.; Chu, C.K. In vitro optimazation of non-small cell lung cancer activity with troxacitabine (L-1,3-dioxolane-cytidine), J.Med. Chem., 2007, 50, 2249-2253.

 

286.     Smee, D.F.; Wandersee, M.K.; Bailey, K.W.; Wong, M.H.; Chu, C.K.; Gadthula, S.; Sidwell, R.W. Celline dependency for antiviral activity and in vitro efficacy of N-methanocarbathymidine against orthopoxvirus infections in mice, Antiviral Research, 2007, 73, 69-77.

 

287.     Narayanasamy, J.; Pullagurla, M.R.; Sharon, A.; Wang, J.N.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of (-)-β-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-dioxolane-2,6-diaminopurine (DAPD) (Amdoxovir) and (-)-β-D-(2R,4R)-1,3-guanine (DXG) prodrugs, Antiviral Research., 2007, 75, 198-209

 

288.     Menne, S.; Asif, G.; Narayasamy, J.; Butler, S.D.; George, A.L.; Hurwitz, S.J.; Schinazi, R. F. Chu, C.K.; Cote, P.J.; Gerin, J. L.; Tennant, B. C. Antiviral effect of orally administered aminopurine dioxolane in woodchucks with chronic woodchuck hepatitis infection, Antiviral Agents Chemothere. 2007, 51, 3177-3184.

 

289.     Adema, A.D.; Radi, M.; Daft, J.; Narayanasamy, J.; Hoebe, E.K.; Alexander, L.E.; Chu, C.K.; Peters, G.J. Troxacitabine prodrugs for pancreatic cancer, NNN, 2007,26, 1073-1077.

 

290.     Asif G.; Hurwitz, S.J.; Obikhod, A.; Delinsky, D.; Narayasamy, J.; Chu, C,K.; MaClure, H.M.; Schinazi, R.F. Pharmacokinetics of the anti-HIV agent β-D-dioxolane-thymine in Rhesus Monkeys, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2007, 51, 2424-2429.

 

291.     Lennerstrand, J.; Chu, C.K.; Schinazi, R. F. Biochemical studies on the mechanism of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistance to 1-(β-D-dioxolane) thymine triphosphate, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2007, 51, 2078-2084.

 

292.     Kim, Y.A.; Rais, R.H.; Safajalani, O.N.; Sharon, A.; Naguib, F.N.; el. Kouni, M; Chu, C.K. Structure activity relationships of 6-benzylthio-7-deazainosine analogs as ligands of toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase, J. Med. Chem. 2008, 51, 3934-3945.

 

293.     Safarjalani, O.N.; Rais, R.H.; Kim, Y.A.; Chu, C.K.; Kirk, M.; Naguib. F.N.M.; el Kouni, M.H. 7-Deaza-6-benzylthioinosine analogues as subversive substrate of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase: Activities and selective toxicities, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2008, 76, 958-966.

 

294.     Liu, P.; Sharon, A.; Chu, C.K. Fluorinated nucleosides: synthesis and biological implication, J. Fluorine Chem., 2008, 129, 743-766.

 

295.     Julander, J.G.; Rao, J.R.; Day, C.; Shafer, K.; Smee, D.F.; Morrey, J.D.; Chu, C.K. Treatment of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus with (-)-Carbodine, Antiviral Research, 2008, 80, 309-315.

 

296.     Sharon, A.; Chu, C.K.; Understanding the molecular basis of HBV drug resistance by molecular modeling. Antiviral Research, 2008, 80, 339-353.

 

297.     Kim, H.J.; Wang, J.; Rao, J.; Huang, Z.; Murray, M.G.; Schinazi, R.F.; Korba, B.; Chu, C. K. Synthesis, anti-HBV and anti-HCV actitivities of 7-deazaneplanocin A. analogues in vitro, J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 206-213.

 

298.     Liang, Y.; Sharon, A.; Grier, J.P.; Rapp, K.L.; Schinazi, R.F.; Chu, C. K. 5’-O-aliphatic and amino acid ester prodrugs of (-)-β-D-(3R,4R)-dixolane-thymine (DOT): synthesis, anti-HIV activity, cytotoxicity and stability studies, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009, 17, 1404-1409.

 

299.     Jha, A.; Sharon, A.; Ronda, R.; Chu, C.K. Regioselective synthesis of 3-dezacarbovir and its 3-deazaadenosine analogs, Tetrahedron, 2009, 65, 9362-6367

 

300.     Mann, J; Chu, C.K.; Maxwell, A.; Oakley, F.; Tsukamoto, H.; Mann, D.A. An epigenetic relay pathway controls hepatic stellate cell activation and wound-healing response of the injured liver, Gastroenterology, 2009, 138, 706-714.

 

301.     Rao, R.R.; Jha, A.K.; Rawal, R.K.; Sharon, A.; Day, C.W.; Barnard, D.L.; Smee, D.F.; Chu, C.K. (-)-Carbodine: Enantiomeric synthesis and in vitro antiviral activity against various strains of influenza virus including H5N1 (avian influenza) and novel 2009 H1N1 (swine flu), Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2010, 20, 2601-2604.

 

302.     Kim, Y.A.; Sharon, A.; Jha, A. K.; Chu, C.K.; Rais, R.H.; Al Safarjalani, O.M.; Naguib, F.N.M.; el Kouni, M. H. Structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling of carbocyclic 6-benzylthioinosine nalogues as subversive substrates of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, 18, 3403-3412.

 

303.     Sharon, A.; Jha, A.K.; Chu, C.K. Clevudine (L-FMAU): A unique antiviral agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, A book chater in Analogue-based Drug Discovery II, Fisher & Ganellin (Eds) Wiley-VCH, 2010.

 

304.     Al Sarjalani, O.N.; Rais, R.H.; Kim, Y.A.; Chu, C.K.; Naguib, F.N.M.; el Kouni, M.H. Carbocyclic 6-benzylthioinosine analogues as subversive substrates of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase: Biological activities and selective toxicities, Biochem. Pharmacol. 2010, 80, 955-963.

 

305.     Gadthula, S.; Rawal, R.K.; Sharon, A.; Wu, D.; Korba, B.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis and antiviral activity of cyclopropyl spirocarbocyclic adenosine, (4R,5S,6R, 7R)-4-(6-amino-9H-yl)-7-(hydroxymethyl)spiro[2.4]heptane-5,5-diol against hepatitis C virus, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lttrs., 2011, 3982-3985.

 

306.     Rowe, J.; Arnold, R.D.; Zhang, B.; White, C.; Toli, J.; Chu, C.K.; Moffat, J.F. β’L-1-{5-(E-2-Bromovinyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)]uracil (L-BHDU) prevents varicella-zoster virus replication in fibroblasts, skin organ culture and SCID-Hu mice with human skin xenogafts, Antiviral Research, 2011.

 

307.     Wang, J.N.; Rawal, R.K.; C.K.Chu in Recent advances in carbocyclic nucleosides: Synthesis and Biological Activity in Medicinal Chemistry of Nucleic Acid, Zhang eds. 2011.

 

308.     Rawal, R.K.; Shing, U.S.; Gadthula, S.; Chu, C.K. Synthesis of Entecavir and its Novel Class of Analogues, Current Protocols in Nucleic Acids. 2011, 1-100.

 

309.     Wang, J.N.; Shing, U.S.; Rawal, R.K.; Sugiyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Jha, A.K.; Scroggin, M.; Huang, Z.; Murray, M.G.; Govindarajan, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Korba, B.; Chu, C.K. Antiviral activity of novel 2′-fluoro-6′-methylene-carbocyclic adenosine against wild-type and drug-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2011, 21, 6328.

 

310.     Friedman, J.; Cho, W.-K.; Chu, C.K.; Keedy, K.S.; Archin, N.M.; Margolis, D. M.;, Karn, J. Epigenic silencing of HIV-1 by the histone H3 lysine27 methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste 2. J. Virology, 2011, 85, 9078-9089.

 

311.     Rawal, R. K.; Singh, U. S.; Chavre, S. N; Wang, J.; Sugiyama, M.; Hung, W.; Govindarajan, R.; Korba, B.;   Tanaka Y.; Chu, C. K. 2′-Fluoro-6′-methylene-carbocyclic adenosine phosphoramidate (FMCAP) prodrug: In vitro anti-HBV activity against the lamivudine-entecavir resistant triple mutant and its mechanism of action, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lttrs.  2013, 23, 503-506.

 

312.     Hung, S.W.; Mody, H.; Marrache, S.; Bhutia, Y.D.; David, F.; Cho, J.H.; Zaster, J.; Dhar, S.; Chu, C.K.;      Govindarajan, R. PLoS ONE, 2013, 8(8): e71196.

 

313.     Singh, U.; Mishera, R.C.; Shankar, R. Chu, C.K. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2’-fluoro-6’-methylene carbocyclic adenosine via Vince Lactam, J. Org. Chem., 2014, 79, 3917-3923.

 

314.     Rowe, J.; Arnold, R.D.; Zhang, B.; White, C.; Toli, J.; Chu, C.K.; Moffat, J.F. β –L-1-{5-(E-2-Bromovinyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)]uracil (L-BHDU) prevents varicella-zoster virus replication in fibroblasts, skin organ culture and SCID-Hu mice with human skin xenogafts, Antiviral Research, 2014, in press.

 

B.         Patents (Listed only US & Japanese patents)

            1.         U.S. Patent #4074042 - 1978

                        Pseudo-Isocytidine

           

            2.         U.S. Patent #41 71429 - 1979

                        Pyrimidine to Pyrimidine Transformation Process

           

            3.         U.S. Patent #4681933 - 1987

                        2’,3’-Dideoxy-5-Substituted Uridines and Related Compounds as Antiviral Agents      

           

            4.         U.S. Patent #4751221 - 1988

                        2-Fluoro-arabinofuranosyl purine nucleosides

           

            5.         U.S. Patent #4841 039 - 1989

                        2’,3-dideoxy-5-substituted uridines and related compounds as antiviral agents

           

            6.         U.S. Patent #4916122 - 1990

                        3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxyuridine anti-retroviral composition

           

            7.         U.S. Patent #4918179 - 1990

                        2-Fluoro-arabinofuranosyl purine nucleosides

           

            8.         U.S. Patent #4987224 - 1991

                        Method of preparation of 2’,3’-dideoxynucleosides

           

            9.         U.S. Patent #5068 320 -1991

                        2-Amino-6-(Cyclopropylamino)Purine-9-D-2,3-Dideoxyribofuranoside and its Pharmaceutically Acceptable Salts

           

            10.       U.S. Patent #5077279 - 1991

                        3’-Azido-2’,3’-Dideoxy-5-Methylcytidine Anti-Viral Composition

           

            11.       U.S. Patent #5118672 -1992

                        5’-Diphosphohexose Nucleoside Pharmaceutical Compositions

           

            12.       U.S. Patent #5084445 -1992

                        3’-Azido-2’,3’-Dideoxy-5-Methylcytidine

           

            13.       U.S. Patent #5159067 - 1992

                        5’-Diphosphohexose Nucleoside Pharmaceutical Compositions

           

            14.       U.S. Patent #5175267 - 1992

                        Stereoselective Glycosylation of Heterocyclic Bases

           

            15.       U.S. Patent #5179104 - 1993

                        Process for the Preparation of Enantiomerically Pure -D-(-)-Dioxolane-Nucleosides

           

            16.       Japanese Patent #1416343 -1988

           

            17.       U.S. Patent #5238947-1993

                        Synthetic Piperidinediones with Cytostatic Activity

           

            18.       U.S. Patent #5200514-1993

                        Synthesis of 2’-Deoxypyrimidine Nucleosides

           

            19.       U.S. Patent #5190926-1993

                        3’-Azido-2’,3’-Dideoxypyrimidines and Related Compounds as Antiviral Agents

           

            20.       U.S. Patent #5248776-1993

                        Process for Enantiomerically Pure -L-1,3-Oxathiolane Nucleosides

           

            21.       U.S. Patent #5384396 -1995

                        Process for the Deoxygenation of Nucleosides

           

            22.       U.S. Patent #5455339 -1995

                        Method for the Preparation of 2,3-Dideoxy and 2, 3-Dideoxydide-Hydro Nucleosides

           

            23.       U.S. Patent #5565438 - 1996

                        L-Nucleosides for the Treatment of Epstein-Barr Virus

           

            24.       U.S. Patent #5567688 - 1996

                        L-Nucleosides for the Treatment of Hepaptitis B-Virus

           

            25.       U.S. Patent #5648489 - 1997

                        Improved Synthesis of Acyclic Guanine Nucleosides

           

            26.       U.S. Patent #5,767,122 - 1998

                        Enantiomerically Pure b-D-Dioxolane Nucleosides

           

            27.       U.S. Patent #5,792,773 - 1998

                        L-b-Dioxolane Uridine Analog Administration for Treating Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

           

            28.       U.S. Patent # 5,817,667 - 1998

                        Compounds and Methods for the Treatment of Cancer

           

            29.       U.S. Patent # 5,753,789 - 1998

                        Oligonucleotides Containing L-Nucleosides

           

            30.       U.S. Patent # 5,925,643 - 1999

                        Enantiomerically Pure b-D-Dioxolane Nucleosides

           

            31.       U.S. Patent # 6,022,876 - 2000

L-b-Dioxolane Uridine Analogs and Methods for Treating and Preventing Epstein-Barr Virus Infections

           

            32.       U.S. Patent # 6,063,787 - 2000

                        Methods for the Treatment of Psoriasis and Genital Warts

           

33. U.S. Patent # 6,197,777  2001

Synthesis, Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Anti-Hepatitis B Virus of 1,3-Oxaselenolane Nucleosides

           

34.              U.S. Patent #6,274,589  2001

L-b-Dioxolane Uridine Analogs and their Pharmaceutical Compositions

           

35.              U.S. Patent #6,271,212  2001

Prodrugs Azide Compositions and Compounds

36.              U.S. Patent #5808,040-2002

 L-Nucleosides Incorporated into Polymeric structures for Stabilization of Oligonucleotides

 

37.              U.S. Patent #6,348,587 B1-2002

2-Fluoronucleosides

 

38.              U.S. Patent #6,436,948 B1-Feb. 19, 2002

 Method for the Treatment of Psorisis and Genital Warts

 

39.       U.S. patent #6,590,107 B1; 2003

Synthesis, Anti-human Immunodeficiency Virus and Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activities of 1,3-Oxathiolane Nucleosides

           

40.           U.S. patent #6,512,107 B2 ; Jan. 28, 2003

Process for the Preparation of 2’-Fluoro-5-methyl-b-L-arabinofuranosyluridine

 

41.              U.S. patent #6,653,318 B1; Nov. 25, 2003

5-(E)-Boromovinyl uracil analogues and related pyrimidine nucleosides as antiviral agents and methods of use

           

42.             U.S. patent #6,670,342 B2; Dec. 30, 2003

Method of treating hepatitis delta virus infection

 

            43.       U.S. patent #6894159 B2; May 17, 2005

Process for the preparation of 2’-fluoro-5-methyl-beta-L-arabinofuranosyluridine

           

44.       U.S. Patent #6800315 B2; May 31, 2005

 2-Amino-9-H-puryn-9-yl-compounds and methods for inhibiting/treating HIV infections and AIDS related symptoms

           

45.              U.S. patent #6911424 B2; June 28, 2005

2’-Fluoronucleosides

           

46.       U.S. patent #6949521 B2; September 27, 2005

            Therapeutic azide compounds

 

47.       U.S. patent #7259180; August 21, 2007

            Methods and compositions for treatment of macular and retinal disease

 

48.              U.S. patent #7262213 B2; August 28, 2007    

                        Compounds and methods for the treatment of cancer

           

            49.       U.S. Patent # 7307065 B2; December 11, 2007

                        2’-Fluoronucleosides

           

50.                   U.S. patent #7615542 B2; November 10, 2009

                       Dioxolane thymine and combinations for use against 3TC/AZT resistant strains of HIV

 

51.                                           U.S. patent #8,076,347 B2; December 13, 2011

          “Compounds and Methods for the Treatment of Cancer”

 

52.                                           U.S. patent #8,492,362 B1; July 23, 2013

          “5-(E)-Bromovinyl Uracil Analogues and Related Pyrimidine Nucleosides as Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus      Agents and Methods of Use”

 

53.                                           U.S. patent #8,642,602 B2; Feb. 2014

          “Method of Inhibiting Fibrogenesis and Treating Fibrotic Disease”

 

54.                                           U.S. patent #8,673,926; March 18, 2014

          Spiro[2.4]heptanes for Treatment of Flaviviridae Infections”

 

55.                                           U.S. patent #8,816,074 B2; Aug. 26, 2014

           “2’-Fluoro-6’-methylene Carbocyclic Nucleosides and Method of Treating Viral Infections”

 

C.        Books (Edited)

1.    Natural Product as Antiviral Agents (Chu & Cutler Edition.)-1992.

2.    Nucleosides as Antiviral and Anticancer Agents (Chu & Baker Edition.)-1993.

3.    Recent Advances in Nucleosides: Chemistry and Chemotherapy (Chu Edition)-2002

4.    Antiviral Nucleosides: Chiral synthesis and Chemotherapy (Chu Edition)-2003

D.        Teaching Activities at the University of Georgia (listed only didactic courses)

Year

Quarter/Semester

Subject

No. of Students

1982

Fall

Principle of Drug Action

81

1983

Spring

Fall

Principle of Drug Action

Principle of Drug Action

80

40

1984

Spring

Fall

Principle of Drug Action

Graduate course

48

8

1985

Spring

Fall

Principle of Drug Action

Graduate course

44

9

1986

Fall

Winter

Principle of Drug Action

Graduate course

91

11

1987

Summer

Winter

Fall

Chemotherapy

Graduate course

Med. Chem. I

29

4

91

1988

Summer

Fall

Chemotherapy

Med. Chem. I

35

113

1989

Fall

Med. Chem. I

96

1990

Summer

Fall

Fall

Chemotherapy

Med. Chem. I

Graduate course

62

68

5

1991

Summer

Fall

Chemotherapy

Med. Chem. III

50

43

1992

Spring

Fall

Med. Chem. III

Graduate course

80

5

1993

Spring

Med. Chem. III

91

1994

Spring

Fall

Chemotherapy

Graduate course

123

6

1995

Spring

Graduate course

9

1996

Fall

Spring

Chemotherapy

Graduate course

107

6

1997

Fall

Chemotherapy of Cancer

110

1998

Spring

Winter

Carbohydrates & Nucleosides

Chemotherapy of Cancer

4

110

1999

Spring

Chemotherapy of Cancer

94

2000

Spring

Carbohydrates & Nucleosides

4

2002

Spring

Carbohydrates & Nucleosides

4

2004

Spring

Carbohydrates & Nucleosides

2

E.         Current Research Group (postdocs):

                        Dr. Ananda Kumar Konreddy -postdoc (2014-present)

                        Dr. Yi Zheng- postdoc (2014-present)

                        Dr. Yan Xiang Wang- postdoc (2014-present)

                        Dr. Mridul Misra- postdoc (2014-present)

                        Dr. Varughese A. Mulamoottil- postdoc (2014-present)

                        Dr. Uma Singh-postdoc (2009-present)

                        Dr. Vivek Pandey -postdoc (2014-present)

                        Dr. Ram Mishra-postdoc (2011-present)

                        Ms. Radhika Manoharan-Lab. Tech (2011-present)

F.         UGA Graduate Faculty Appointment:

            Appointed (1984 - 1990)

            Renewed (1991 - 1998)

            Renewed (1998 - 2005)

            Renewed (2006- 20012)

G.        Service activities:

            Public Service (National level)

                        National Institute of Health Advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 1988

                        National Institute of Health Advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 1989

                        National Institute of Health Advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 1990

                        National Institute of Health Advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 1991

                        National Institute of Health Advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 1992-1993

                        National Institute of Health Advisory Committee (Bioorganic and Natural Products)1994-1997

                        The National Science Foundation (Grant Review) 1989-1990

                        The State of Idaho (Grant Review) 1989-1990

                        National Institutes of Health Advisory Committee (AIDS related Study Section AARR3) 1998-2002.

                        National Institute Health advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 2003

                        National Institute Health advisory Committee (Special Study Section) 2004

                        National Institute Health advisory Committee (SBIR Study Section) 2005

H.        Symposium (Organized or Scientific Advisory Committee)

            1.         Korean-American AIDS Symposium, Seoul, Korea, June 14-15, 1990.

 

            2.         American Chemical Society-Natural product Antiviral agents(Agricultural & Food Chemistry Division), New York, N.Y., August, 1991, (Co-organizer).

 

            3.         American Chemical Society (Carbohydrate Division), Spring, San Francisco, CA, April 7, 1992, (co-organizer).

 

            4.         5th International Symposium on Antiviral Agents, Seoul, Korea, June 21 -25, 1992 (co-chairman).

 

5.         6th International Symposium on Antiviral Agents, Nice, France, June 7 - 10, 1994 (International Scientific Advisory Board).

 

6.         International Conference on Therapies for Viral Hepatitis, Honolulu, Hawaii, Dec. 16-22, 1995 (International Scientific Advisor).

 

            7.         International Society for Antiviral Research, Atlanta, Ga, 1997 (Local organizing committee).

 

            8.         7th International Antiviral Symposium, Sydney, Australia, Feb. 15-19, 1997 (International Scientific Advisor).

 

            9.         Satellite Symposium of International Society for Antiviral Research Emory University, April 5-6, 1997, Atlanta, GA (Co-Chair).

 

           10.        2nd International Conference on Therapies for Viral Hepatitis, Kona, Hawaii, Dec. 15-19, 1997 (International Scientific Advisor).

 

11.                 The Jack Fox Symposium, San Francisco, CA, September 10, 2000 (Organizer).

 

12.                 Frontiers in Drug Development for Viral hepatitis, Maui, Hawaii, Dec. 16-20, 2001 (Scientific Advisory Committee).

 

13.                 1st International Meeting on Medicinal and Pharmaceutical chemistry, Ankara, Turkey, September 25-28, 2002 (Scientific Advisory Committee).

 

14.                 9th International Antiviral Conference and Workshop, Antalya, Turkey, November 14-18, 2003 (Scientific Advisory Committee).

 

15.                 DART 2003: Frontiers in Drug Development for Viral Hepatitis, Dec. 14-18, 2003 (Scientific Advisory Committee).

 

16.                 9th National Conference on Bioactive Heterocycles and Drug Discovery Paradigm, Jan 8-10, 2005, Saurashtra University,Gujarat, India (Scientific Advisory Committee).

 

17.                 5th International Symposium on Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sept. 5-7, 2007 (Scientific Advisory member).

I.          National/International meeting chairs

            1.         American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, New York National Meeting,1990.

            2.         American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, Washington, D.C. National Meeting, September, 1990.

            3.         American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, Atlanta National Meeting, April, 1991.

            4.         American Chemical Society Nucleoside Symposium, San Francisco, CA, April 1992.

            5.         5th International Symposium on Antiviral Agents, Seoul, Korea, June, 1992.

            6.         American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, Washington, D.C., August,1992.

            7.         American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, Denver, CO., March, 1993.

            8.         American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, Chicago, lL, August,1993.

            9.         International Symposium on Recent Advances in Chemotherapeutic Agents, Seoul, Korea, August,1993.

            10.       American Chemical Society Carbohydrate Division, San Diego, CA., March, 1994.

            11.       10th International Conference on Antiviral Research: Satellite Symposium, Atlanta, GA, April, 1997     

12.              Eighth International Antiviral Symposium and Workshop, Nov. 19-21, 2000, Kagoshima, JAPAN

13.              XIV International Roundtable, September 10-14, 2000, San Francisco, CA.

14.              10Th International Symposium on Purines and Pyrimidines in Man: Basic and Clinical Aspects, May14-19, 2000, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL.

15.              13th International Conference on Antiviral Research, April 16-21, 2000, Baltimore, MD.         

16.              14th International Conference on Antiviral Research, April 16-21, 2000, Baltimore, MD.         

17.              Frontiers in Drug Development for Viral Hepatitis, December 16-20, 2001, Maui, Hawaii

18.              Frontiers in Drug Development for Viral Hepatitis, December 14-18, 2003, Kauai, Hawaii

19.              Society of Biomedical Research annual Symposium, August 5-8, 2003, Washington, D.C.        

20.              International Symposium on Pharmaceutical Chemistry, September 5-7, 2007, Istanbul, Turkey.

            21.       2nd European workshop in drug synthesis, May 28, 2008, Siena, Italy.


 

 

Home

Facilities

Accomplishments

Collaborators

Members

Group Pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prof. Chus CV 

Employment Opportunities                     Recent news

Past Members

Links

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Comments, Suggestions, Questions or Requests for Reprints

 

dchu@uga.edu

 

Last Update: 4/4/16